Architecture overview When it comes to architecture, you will find that it is a science or even an art. You will want to keep in mind that designing and planning is just half of the wonder when it comes to putting a town together or working on the local surroundings. There are some people who specialize in just architecture and that is known as being an architect. Architecture has played a key part of our entire worlds history. For wherever there have been buildings or structures that were safe for inhabiting, there has been some sort of architecture. When it comes to architecture, you will find that it all begins with imagination and then it is created to be functional, educational, useful, and even fun. From the smallest 1 bedroom home to the grandest palace or biggest cathedral, every structure is based on some form of architecture. Overtime architecture tends to change with time and design. You will find that there are many eras of architectural design as well. Each era has its own style of architecture, from Baroque, Greco-Roman, Art Deco, Victorian to American Colonial, Prairie, and Bauhaus. Lines, materials, structure and symbolism all contribute to the different styles of architecture. Architecture styles can be anywhere from subtle to garish and materials vary from lumber to limestone. When it comes to the earlier designs you will find that they are made from local and natural materials and they are also materials that are bountiful. In Greece, limestone happened to be bountiful and it was the material that most structures were created from. And since marble was not only rare but for a few select islands, but very difficult to transport, it was used sparingly and usually only for ornamentation. When it comes to early America, you will find that the saltbox houses where made from wood, which was readily available and it was easily to build, so it took practically no money at all to build one of these homes. You will find that the joints could have been put together with nails, but they were very expensive, so they were usually put together with wood joints. American Architecture When you take a trip across the country and you start to look for beautiful architecture you will find it from coast to coast. You will notice that most of the architecture of America is mostly predominate of the 1780's. Many wealthy early American settlers like the Anglo-Americans built the structures. Built mostly by wealthy Anglo Americans, the houses afforded several distinct styles depending on local. Also known as Colonial Georgian, these homes were the earliest style to grace the U.S. colonies. A good example of American colonial architecture happens to be the Saltbox. What the Saltbox basically is is a wooden frame house with a high-pitched roof that slopes down to the back. It basically is two stories and the back of the house only has one story. This makes the sides very unequal, but it looks much like a saltbox, which basically was a wooden boxed building where you kept your salt. The saltbox is a simple style of home, but it also has a simple name. Generally, the chimney was centrally located, making the house, from a distance, look like a box with a lid and handle to lift it off. Other defining characteristics of American Colonial architecture are the square, symmetrical shape, the front door placed directly in the middle of the houses front and the even, straight line of windows throughout. Once you are inside there is usually an entryway and then a staircase. You will find that when it comes to rooms, they will branch off from the entryway. When it comes to the homes like saltboxes, they are just timber-framed homes constructed with woodwork joints, because metal nails are too costly. You will find that saltbox homes will also have a wood siding to finish off the home. Adobes and ancient architecture The adobe architecture was some of the earliest structures. This type of structures where made from natural materials like dung, straw, sand, and clay. There are other materials that are used as well. The adobe is formed into bricks. Then the bricks are dried in the sun much like cob or even mud bricks. The structures become extremely durable. They are used mainly in hot, arid climates because they remain cool in the summer and release heat very slowly in the winter. The same mixture, without the straw is used for mortar in placing the dried adobe bricks together to form a structure. Then there are some that use a lime-based cement as for plaster to add protection for those wet months. The thickness of the adobe bricks is key in the architecture. This is what will keep the structure cool in the hot months and warm in the cold months. The largest structure ever erected from Adobe was the Bam Citadel. But it suffered serious damage from an earthquake in 2003. The Huaca del Sol in Peru is another grand adobe structure that was created from over 100 million signed bricks. When it comes to the worlds largest adobe architecture happens to erected from 500 BC and it is known as the citadel of Arg-e-Bam. The area of Bam Citadel is 180,000 square meters and is surrounded by walls 6-7 meters high and 1815 meters in length, all out of Adobe. When the gates to the city were closed, no human or animal could enter. This is a city that is self-contained, but it has access to gardens and cattle all within the city. When it comes to adobe architecture it is a little bit different when it comes to placing a roof on the structure. You will find that the roofs where made of wood or metal, but then there are dried adobe bricks placed on top of the structure and plastered to stay in place on the roof. 17 century Architecture and Baroque era Back in the 17th century and in Italy, you'll find that this is about the time of the baroque architecture. This is a very early style of architecture, but a very beautiful style. Taking the renaissance architecture and modifying it to a new theatrical, sculptural fashion, Baroque architecture became a very fanciful, extravagant style of structural design. When it comes to the renaissance style, it was designed for a more well to do society, and then the baroque architecture became an interest with the Roman Catholic Church. The concerns were for light, shade and color intensity and Baroque found its secular expression in grand palaces first in France, then throughout Europe. Keep in mind that the Chateau de Maisons is still in France and it is known as a huge part of the baroque architecture. One of the most famous though of the Baroque architecture pieces is St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. When it comes to the Vatican City, you will find that it is one of the most beautiful. Topped with its towering dome, it is a notable feature in the Roman skyline. When it comes to baroque structures you will find that it can be grand in both ornaments and grand. As baroque moved through Europe, it eventually took on the look of European Colonialism. As for England, it is the Greenwich hospital located in London that is one of the most beautiful, English examples of this type of architecture. Founded in 1694 as the Royal Naval Hospital for sailors, the Greenwich hospital is famous for its Baroque Painted Hall, which was painted in honor of King William and Queen Mary. With the chapel, you'll want to keep in mind that baroque architecture is not only present in the art and décor, but also it is known for the gold painted ceilings. Art Deco and Architecture When it comes to art deco architecture, it was very popular in the twenties and the thirties. It becomes a movement in interior design and even industrial design. You will find that there are many things like films and pieces of art that also fashion this type of style. The movement was a mixture of many different styles, incorporating cubism, modernism, Bauhaus, Art Nouveau, and Futurism, and its popularity peaked in the roaring twenties. There were many other architectural styles that also had some political roots, and also they had some philosophical influences, but when it comes to art deco it is just for simple decoration. Designed to be beautiful, elegant, functional and modern. One of the best-known pieces of Art Deco architecture in the U.S. is the Chrysler Building in New York. The beautiful Art Deco spire was built between 1928 and 1930. Following close behind the Art Deco period was the Streamline Moderne. The focus was mainly on advancing technologies such as automobiles and aviation. With the art deco architecture it is mainly composed of many man-made pieces. The most popular being glass and stainless steel. Lines were very symmetrical and repetitive throughout structures. It becomes very popular during the depression because it was very simple and very practical. Art Deco still reminded people of the better times and gave them hope of one day reliving them. After the Second World War, it becomes very short live fore the art deco period. You will find that the image of art deco became almost like a false sense of lavishness, but it is still seen in interior design well into the 1960's. Something that you'll want to think about it that the beautiful designs of art deco architecture has become very modern and also it still is mixing things up with even today's styles. Throughout the United States, you will still find that art deco is still alive in some of the bigger cities.
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