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Bluetooth Technology

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Introduction To Bluetooth

Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become
easy to use so even those who are new to wireless can use them. Version 1.1 of
Bluetooth describes a low power, short range wireless networking technology that
uses radio waves to send data at rates up to 720 kilobits a second.

The specification for Bluetooth provides for different classes of radio that
allow transmission ranges of up to 100 meters by boosting the radio power. The
technology of Bluetooth isn't limited to line of sight transmission since it
uses directional waves that are capable of transmitting through many obstructions.

Bluetooth is an industry standard communication of wireless, meaning that it
enables the connection of other devices as well, such as cell phones, computers,
digital cameras, and other types of electronic devices. The specification of
Bluetooth defines a radio system and a "stack" of protocol layers and profiles. The
highest layer is the application layer, while the lowest layer is the radio.
The wireless technology of Bluetooth is positioned to revolutionize the personal
connectivity market by providing freedom from inconvenient fixed type lines.
The specification for Bluetooth eliminates the need for cables by providing a
small form factor, low cost wireless solution that will link computers, cell
phones, and other electronics. Bluetooth also allows users to connect many
ranges of devices quickly and easily and expands communications capabilities as 
well.

The size of the Bluetooth radio is amazing, as a Bluetooth radio can be built
into one or two very small microchips then integrated into any electronic device
where wireless operations would be an advantage.

Bluetooth also offers a robust link, which ensures that normal operating
circumstances are not interrupted by interference from other signals that are
operating in the same frequency band.

Also known for its worldwide operation, Bluetooth radio operates in the 2.4 GHz
frequency band, which is license free and available to any type of radio system
in the world. No matter where you are in the world, you count on Bluetooth to
work.

Security is also important. Offering advanced security mechanisms, Bluetooth
ensures a high level of security. Therefore, authentification will prevent
unauthorized acess to important data and make it very difficult to listen in.
Bluetooth also boasts power optimization. The radio is power friendly and the
software for Bluetooth is very configurable, limiting the power consumption of
equipment. The radio itself only consumes a small amount of power from a
cellular phone.


Bluetooth Definition

Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low power radio communications to
wireless phones, computers, and other network wireless devices over short
distances. The name Bluetooth is actually borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a
Denmark king more than 1,000 years ago.

The technology of Bluetooth was primarily designed to support simple wireless
networking of devices and peripherals, which includes cell phones, PDAs, and
wireless headsets. The wireless signals that are transmitted by Bluetooth cover
short distances of up to 30 feet, generally communicating less than 1 MPps 
(Mega Byte per second).

The networks of Bluetooth feature dynamic topology called PAN or a piconet. The
piconets contain a minumum of two and a maximum of eight peer devices. The
devices will communicate using protocols that are part of the specification.
Even though the Bluetooth standard will utilize the same 2.4 GHz range as
802.11b and 802.11g, the technology isn't suitable for a Wi-Fi replacement.
When compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth is much slower, limited in range, and actually
supports less devices.

For short range devices, Bluetooth is rapidly becoming the best. The technology
is more popular with cell phones, as Bluetooth headsets are the way to go these
days. To use Bluetooth, your cell phone will need to have it enabled, or an
infared device somewhere on the phone.

Upcoming devices are utilizing Bluetooth as well, such as PS3 and the Nintendo
Revolution. The wireless controllers will be Bluetooth enabled, which will give
players the cutting edge.

If you own a cell phone or other wireless device, you should look into
Bluetooth. The technology is nothing short of spectacular, making it something
that will be around for years and years to come. As technology gets bigger and
bigger, you can expect Bluetooth to advance as well.


How Bluetooth Works

Bluetooth devices will normally operate at 2.4 GHZ in the license free, globally
available ISM radio band. The advantage to this band includes worldwide
availability and compatibility. A disadvantage to this however, is that the
devices must share this band with other RF emitters. This includes automobile 
security systems, other wireless devices, and other noise sources, such as 
microwaves.

To overcome this challenge, Bluetooth employs a fast frequency hopping scheme
and therefore uses shorter packets than other standards within the ISM band.
This scheme helps to make Bluetooth communication more robust and more secure.
Frequency hopping Frequency hopping is basically jumping from frequency to
frequency within the ISM radio band. After a bluetooth device sends or receives
a packet, it and the device (or devices) it's communicating with hop to another
frequency before the next packet is sent. This scheme offers three advantages:

1. Allows Bluetooth devices to use the entirety of the available ISM band,
while never transmitting from a fixed frequency for more than a short period of
time. This helps insure that Bluetooth conforms to the ISM restrictions on the
transmission quantity per frequency.

2. Ensures that any interference won't last long. Any packet that doesn't
arrive safely to its destination can be resent to the next frequency.

3. Provides a base level of security as it's very hard for an eavesdropping
device to predict which frequency the Bluetooth devices will use next.

The connected devices however, must agree upon the frequency they will use next.
The specification in Bluetooth ensures this in two ways. First, it defines a
master and slave type relationship between bluetooth devices. Next, it
specifies an algorithm that uses device specific information when calculating the 
frequency hop sequences.

A Bluetooth device that operates in master mode can communicate with up to seven
devices that are set in slave mode. To each of the slaves, the master Bluetooth
device will send its own unique address and the value of its own internal clock.
The information sent is then used to calculate the frequency hop sequences.

Because the master device and each of the slave devices use the same algorithm
with the same initial input, the connected devices will always arrive together
at the next frequency that they have agreed upon.

As a replacement for cable technology, it's no wonder that Bluetooth devices are
usually battery powered, such as wireless mice and battery powered cell phones.
To conserve the power, most devices operate in low power. This helps to give
Bluetooth devices a range of around 5 -- 10 meters.

This range is far enough for wireless communication but close enough to avoid
drawing too much power from the power source of the device.


10 Benefits Of Bluetooth

Below, are 10 benefits and reasons to use Bluetooth technology.

1. Wireless As you probably already know, there are many benefits and
advantages to using wireless devices. Along with improving safety as a result
of eliminating wires you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of other
advantages. When traveling with your laptop or other wireless devices, you'll no 
longer have to worry about bringing connection cables.

2. Bluetooth is actually inexpensive The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for
companies to implement, which results in lower costs for the company. These
savings are then passed from the company on to you.

3. Bluetooth is automatic Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or
push any buttons. When two or more devices enter a range of up to 30 feet of
each other, they will automatically begin to communicate without you having to
do anything.

4. Standardized protocol Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that a
high level of compatibility among devices is guaranteed. Bluetooth will connect
devices to each other, even if they aren't the same model.

5. Low interference Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference from
other wireless devices. Bluetooth uses a technique known as frequency hopping,
and also low power wireless signals.

6. Low energy consumption As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals, the
technology requires very little energy and will use less battery or electrical
power as a result. This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices, as Bluetooth
won't drain the battery.

7. Sharing voice and data The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible
devices to share data and voice communications. This is great for mobile phones
and headsets, as Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your cell phone.

8. Instant PAN (Personal Area Network) You can connect up to seven Bluetooth
devices to each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming a piconet or PAN.
For a single room, you can also set up multiple piconets.

9. Upgradeable Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth. There are newer
versions of Bluetooth in the works, which offer many new advantages and backward
compatible with older versions.

10. The technology stays Bluetooth technology is a world wide, universal
wireless standard. With it being as popular as it is, you can count on it being
around for years to come. As more and more devices start to use Bluetooth
technology, more manufacturers will be eager to make their products compatible. 
A chain reaction will occur, making Bluetooth the standard for cutting edge 
wireless.


Advantages And Disadvantages

Bluetooth has a lot to offer with an increasingly difficult market place.
Bluetooth helps to bring with it the promise of freedom from the cables and
simplicity in networking that has yet to be matched by LAN (Local Area Network).
In the key marketplace, of wireless and handheld devices, the closest competitor
to Bluetooth is infrared. Infrared holds many key features, although the line
of sight it provides doesn't go through walls or through obstacles like that of
the Bluetooth technology.

Unlike infrared, Bluetooth isn't a line of sight and it provides ranges of up to
100 meters. Bluetooth is also low power and low processing with an overhead
protocol. What this means, is that it's ideal for integration into small
battery powered devices. To put it short, the applications with Bluetooth are 
virtually endless.

Disadvantages Bluetooth has several positive features and one would be extremely
hard pressed to find downsides when given the current competition. The only
real downsides are the data rate and security. Infrared can have data rates of
up to 4 MBps, which provides very fast rates for data transfer, while Bluetooth 
only offers 1 MBps.

For this very reason, infrared has yet to be dispensed with completely and is
considered by many to be the complimentary technology to that of Bluetooth.
Infrared has inherent security due to its line of sight.

The greater range and radio frequency (RF) of Bluetooth make it much more open
to interception and attack. For this reason, security is a very key aspect to
the Bluetooth specification.

Although there are very few disadvantages, Bluetooth still remains the best for
short range wireless technology. Those who have tried it love it, and they know
for a fact that Bluetooth will be around for years to come.


Key Learning Points Of Bluetooth

Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless handheld technology. When it comes to
learning, Bluetooth can get quite complicated. To help you, you'll find the key
learning points of Bluetooth below:

 1. Bluetooth is an energy efficient, low overhead communication protocol that's
    ideal for interdevice communications.
 2. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require a line of sight.
 3. Depending on the implementation, Bluetooth can have a range of up to 100
    meters.
 4. The specification of Bluetooth consists of a Foundation Profile Document and
    a Foundation Core Document.
 5. The protocol stack for Bluetooth consists of core protocols, cable
    protocols, and even adapted protocols.
 6. The transmitter operates around the 2.4 GHz frequency band.
 7. The data channel will change frequency, or hops, 1,600 times in a second,
    between the 79 allocated channels in the ISM band.
 8. Bluetooth utilizes a spread spectrum frequency hopping RF characteristic to
    ensure that independant networking operates when the other devices are in range.
 9. A piconet is formed when one or more devices open up a channel of
    communication.
10. A piconet can have a master and up to seven slaves.
11. Communication of the interdevice is based on the concepts of channels.
12. All Bluetooth devices are capable of transmitting voice.
13. The channel has a total capacity of 1 MB per second.
14. There are two types of channels with Bluetooth -- SCO (Synchronous
    Connection Oriented) and ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless).
15. The SCO channels are time oriented, and are therefore primarily used for
    transferring time critical data such as voice.
16. ACL channels are normally used for communicating data.
17. Data contained in a packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length.
18. In a single piconet, there can be up to three SCO links containing 64,000
    bits a second each.
19. To avoid collision and timing problems, SCO links are reserved slots that
    are set up by the master.
20. The masters can support up to three SCO links with either one, two, or
    three slaves.
21. The slots that aren't reserved for SCO links can be used as ACL links.
22.  The LMP (Link Management Protocol) will handle link level security, error
    corrections, and the establishment of communications links.
23. The LMP packets will have priority over user packets that originate and
    form the L2CAP layer.
24. The L2CAP layer will ensure an acceptable quality of service.
25. No more than one ACL link can exist at the L2CAP layer.


The Bluetooth Solution

The technology of Bluetooth will take small area networking to the next level by
removing the need for user intervention and help keep transmission power very
low to preserve battery power. Each transmission signal to and from your
cellular phone will use just 1 mw of power, giving you plenty of space on your 
battery to talk. 

Bluetooth is a networking standard that will work on two levels:

1. It will provide agreement at the physical level, as Bluetooth is a radio
frequency standard.

2. It will provide agreement at the level of protocol, where products will have
to agree on when bits are sent, how many are sent, and how the parties in
conversation can be sure the message recieved is the same one that was sent.

The major draws to Bluetooth is the fact that it's wireless, inexpensive, and
automatic. There are other ways to get around wires, including infrared.

Infrared uses light waves of a lower frequency than the human eye can, and is
normally used in television remote controls.

The technology of Bluetooth is intended to get around the problems that normally
come with infrared systems. The 1.0 older standard of Bluetooth has a max
transfer speed of 1 MB a second, while the 2.0 Bluetooth standard can manage up
to 3.0 MB a second. To make things better, 2.0 is compatible with 1.0 devices.

As a solution to wireless, Bluetooth will eliminate the need for messy cords,
keeping everything nice and neat. It's perfect for those who like to talk on
cell phones, as you no longer need to hold the phone next to your ear -- which is
great for those who travel a lot.


Bluetooth Basics

The technology of Bluetooth wireless is a short range communications method
intended to replace the cables that connect portable or fixed devices while
maintaining the highest levels of security.

The key features offered by Bluetooth include low power and low cost. The
specification in Bluetooth defines a uniform structure for a wide range of
devices to communicate and connect with one another.

The technology behind Bluetooth has achieved global satisfaction such as enabled
devices, almost everywhere in the world. Bluetooth devices will connect and
communicate without wires through short range and networks known as piconets.
Each device will simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices
within a single piconet, meaning that each device can also belong to several
piconets simultaneously. The piconets are dynamically established as Bluetooth
enabled devices enter and leave the proximity of radio.

A fundamental to Bluetooth strength is the ability to handle both data and voice
transmissions simultaneously. This will enable users to enjoy varieties of
innovative solutions such as hands free talking, printing and fax capabilities,
and other applications.

Specifications Unlike other standards of wireless, the Bluetooth specification
gives product developers both a link layer and application layer definitions,
which will help support data and voice applications.

Spectrum The Bluetooth technology operates in the industrial and scientific band
at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping signal.
Interference The adaptive frequency hopping of Bluetooth technology was designed
to reduce interference between wireless technologies that share the 2.4 GHz
spectrum. Adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) works well within the spectrum to
take full advantage of the frequency available.

AFH hopping allows for more efficient transmission within the spectrum, which
provides users with greater performance even if they are using other
technologies along with Bluetooth.


Bluetooth In Action

In the United States, Bluetooth gets absolutely no respect. It is however,
becoming more and more common in notebooks, PDAs, and especially cell phones.
Bluetooth will provide wireless users a way to transmit small amounts of data
over short distances.

Now, Bluetooth is facing stiff competition from new wireless technology.

Referred to as UWB or Ultra Wideband, it promises data transfer of up to 480 MB
a second -- while most current Bluetooth devices transfer data up to 721 KB a
second.

For the time being, Bluetooth devices are surely cropping up. Below, we will
look at some of the accessories offered with Bluetooth technology.

Talking to the dashboard When pairing it with a cell phone, the CCM Blue Warrior
car kit becomes a great speaker phone that plugs into the power adapter of your
vehicle. The noise cancelling microphone will reduce background noise
efficiently, with the large buttons making adjusting the speaker volume a snap. 
Although the Blue Warrior is far from sexy or sleek, it's very practical.

Tiny tuning box Part MP3 player and part hands free phone, the compact and
lightweight Sony HBM-30 is an attractive gadget that lets you accept calls with
minimal interruption of your tunes. When you get an incoming call it will
automatically pause your music, then you speak into the built in microphone that 
you can wear around your neck or clip to your clothes.

The pen With Nokia's SU-1B digital pen, you can doodle and make hand written
notes in ink on a special pad then transmit them from the pad to your Bluetooth
phone. Being an alternative to typing on a cell phone keypad, the pen is very
handy, although a pricey tool from MMS fans.

Snapshots If you want to make slide shows with your camera photos, the Nokia
SU-2 image viewer will let you disply your pictures on a TV or projector.
Simply hook this square gray device to your TV's input with the built in cable,
then beam the pictures to the SU-2 from your Bluetooth enabled phone and the photo 
fest will begin.

This device is a snap to set up and use, although it displays resolutions of up
to 640 by 480. If you have a newer phone that takes high resolution photos, you
won't be able to use the Nokia SU-2 image viewer.

Keep in mind, the 640 by 480 pixel photos will appear blocky on TV screens, no
matter what you do. If your phone can send batches of photos, you can create a
slide show -- although Nokia claims you can use sequentially beamed shots as
well.


Using Bluetooth

The amazing technology of Bluetooth presents a great way of exchanging data
between two wireless devices. Unlike telephones, there are no wires or messy
leads to worry about. You can enjoy wireless communications with short
distances of up to thirty feet.

Bluetooth also offers interoperability, meaning that you can use your portable
Bluetooth device to connect with existing Bluetooth points. This way, you won't
have to carry a data lead or CDs of drivers around with you everywhere you go.
You can enjoy the best of wireless without having to worry about installing your
software.

With today's Bluetooth, you can use your PDA and cell phone to surf the net or
check emails as you travel. If you are in the business field, this can be very
beneficial, especially if you like to check your email throughout the day.
Bluetooth will enable you to check your email no matter where you are -- which is 
great news for those who like to travel.

Bluetooth will also enable to you to transfer files as well, such as MP3 and
photo to and from your mobile device. Bluetooth dominates the world of short
range wireless, enabling you to do more than you may have thought possible.
One of the best things to Bluetooth and something everyone loves is the wireless
headset. Bluetooth offers wire free headsets for your cell phone or computer,
which is great for those who like to walk around or talk on the phone in the
car, without having to worry about your hands getting in the way.

To make things even better, you can use a Bluetooth GPS device for satellite
navigation on your PDA, laptop, or mobile. If you travel -- this can be really
great to have.


Choosing A Bluetooth Headset

Creating a good wireless headset for Bluetooth is actually difficult to do. The
regular wired headsets are easy to design -- with ranging styles.

Bluetooth headsets can never be as small or as light as wired headsets, simply
because it needs to include the battery and extra functions. This extra size
will impact how the headset mounts on or around your ears.

Comfort There seems to be two main styles of headsets for Bluetooth. Some are
held into place with a loop around the ear. These styles are normally more
comfortable, although they may be less secure. The others are held in place by
being jammed  into your ear -- and usually prove to be less comfortable.

Factors to consider

Cost The cost is an obvious issue, something that you really need to think
about.

Ergonomics

1. Check to see if the device is easy to quickly and conveniently put on your
   ear then take it off again.
2. Are the control buttons on the headset easy to use?
3. The headset should be comfortable to wear for long phone calls.
4. Can you use it with a pair of glasses?
5. Check to see if you can wear it with either ear.
6. When you aren't wearing it, you'll need to se how you would carry it with
   you.
7. The weight is important as well, as you don't want something that has the
   risk of falling off.

Ease of use

1. The commands and controls should be easy to remember.
2. The volume level should be easy to adjust.
3. The unit should turn on quickly.
4. The manual should be very well written and easy for you to understand.
5. There should be a support number for you to call if you should experience
   any types of problems.

Features	

1. You'll need to know about the battery, the talk time, type, and how to tell
   when it is going dead or fully charged.
2. How many devices can the unit be paired with?
3. Compatability is also important, as well as the warranty period.
4. Check the sound quality for both sending and receiving audio.
5. What type of range does the headset offer you?

Other important capabilities include voice tags, last number redial, tranfer
calls, 3 way calling, link to other phones, call reject, and mute. You'll also
want to note if it looks attractive, and if it's too big or too small.


Bluetooth Glossary

Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in Bluetooth technology. They
can serve as a look up, or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in
general.

2 in 1 Handset - The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting as a remote
handset to a base unit that provides a network connection.

3G - Third generation, referring to the next generation of digital phone 
technology.

802.11 WLAN - A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE. 

Access Code - Each base band packet will start with an access code, which can be 
one of 3 types: CAC, DAC, and IAC.

ACK - Acknowledge

ACL - Asynchronous Connectionless Link. This is one of the two types of data
links that are defined for Bluetooth.

ACO - Authenticated Ciphering Offset.

Active Mode - During the active mode, the unit will actively participate on the
channel. The master will schedule the transmission based on traffic demands
from the different slaves.

AP - Access point.

Authentification - The process of verifying who is at the opposite end of the
link.

Authentification Device - A device whose identity has been verified during the
lifetime of the current link based on the authentification procedure.

Baseband - This describes the specification of the digital signal processing
aspect of the hardware -- the controller -- which carries out the baseband
protocols.

BB - Abreviation of baseband.

BD - Bluetooth device.

BER - Bit Error Rate.

The above is more of an intro to the terms that are used with Bluetooth.
Bluetooth currently has hundreds of devices, making it the best wireless
solution in the world. With more coming out every day, you can bet that
Bluetooth will be around for many years to come.

If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be very helpful. There are
hundreds of glossary terms that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe
shortcuts to common terms. You can learn a lot by reading over the meanings,
especially if you have never used Bluetooth technology before.

Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth, can look over the glossary of
terms to brush up on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar term
actually means. Nothing is complicated with the meanings, although they make
take some getting used to.

Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while, you'll find yourself right at
home with the terms and meanings to the technology. All you need to do is play
around with it, and read books or manuals whenever you get the chance. Before
you know it, you'll be a professional in the vast world of Bluetooth wireless.




Bluetooth Specifications

Below, you'll find several specifications for the well known Bluetooth:

 1. Throughout the United States and even Europe, the range of frequency is
    2,400 -- 2,483.5 MHZ, with 79 1-MHz RF (radio frequency) channels. The frequency
    range in Japan is 2,472 to 2,497 MHz with 23 1-MHz RF channels.
 2. A data channel of Bluetooth randomly hops 1,600 times per second between the
    79 RF channels.
 3. Each Bluetooth channel is divided into time slots, with each one being 625
    microseconds long.
 4. A Bluetooth piconet has one master and up to seven slaves. The master will
    transmit in even time slots, while the slaves will transmit in odd time slots.
 5. The data in a single packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length.
 6. Currently, there are two types of data transfer between devices -- SCO
    (synchronous connection oriented) and ACL (asynchronous connectionless).
 7. In a Bluetooth piconet, there can be up to three SCO links containing 64,000
    bits per second with each one. To help avoid collision and timing problems, the
    links of the SCO will use reserved slots set up by the master.
 8. A master can support up to three SCO links with either one, two, or even
    three slaves.
 9. The slots not reserved for the SCO links can be used for ACL links.
10. A single master and slave can have one ACL link.
11. ACL is either master to one slave (point to point) or it broadcasts to all
    of the slaves.
12. The ACL slaves will only transmit when it has been requested by the master.

If the master doesn't make the request, the ACL slaves won't transmit anything
at all.


Bluetooth Operation

The networking standards of Bluetooth will transmit data via low power radio
frequency. Bluetooth communicates on a 2.45 GHz frequency. This very band of
frequency has been set aside by international agreement for the use of
industrial and medical devices.

Many devices that you already known and use take advantage of this frequency
band. Garage door openers, baby monitors, and the next generation of mobile
phones all use this frequency within the ISM band. Ensuring that Bluetooth and
the other devices don't interfere with each other is a crucial part of the design 
process. One of the ways Bluetooth will avoid interfering with other electronic 
devices is by sending out weak signals of around 1 mw. In comparison, even the 
most powerful of cell phones can transmit a signal of 3 watts.

The low power signals will limit the range of a Bluetooth device to around 32
feet, which cut the chances of interference between your computer and other
electronic devices. Even though it has low power, Bluetooth doesn't require a
line of sight between the communicating devices. The walls in your home won't 
stop the signal, making it great for rooms throughout the house.

Bluetooth can connect 8 devices at the same time. With each of those devices on
the same radius, you may think they would interfere with each other, although
it's very unlikely. Bluetooth utilizes a technique known as low frequency
hopping, which makes it harder for more than one device to transmit on the same 
frequency at the same time.

With this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen
frequencies within a designated range, which change from one another on a
regular basis.

In the case of Bluetooth, the transmitters will change frequency 1,600 times or
more every second, meaning that more devices can make full use of the radio
spectrum. Since every transmitter of Bluetooth will use spread spectrum
automatically, it's very unlikely that two transmitters will be on the same 
frequency at the exact same time.

When the Bluetooth devices come within close range of each other, an electronic
conversation will occur to determine whether or not they have data to share or
whether one needs to take total control. The user doesn't have any buttons to
press or commands to give -- as the conversation will occur automatically.

Once the conversation has occured, the devices will form a network. Bluetooth
devices will create a PAN (Personal Area Network) or piconet that may fill a
room. Once the piconet has been established, the devices will randomly hop in
frequencies.


Bluetooth Applications

With Bluetooth being very popular with wireless, it's no wonder there are many
applications available for the technology. Below, you'll find the applications
for Bluetooth.

1. Wireless networking between laptops and desktop computers, or desktops that
   are in a confined space and little bandwidth is needed.
2. Peripherals such as mice, keyboards, and printers.
3. Cell phones with Bluetooth technology have been sold in large numbers, as
   they are able to connect to computers, PDAs (Personal Data Assistant), and
   various other devices. The standard also includes the support for more 
   powerful and longer range devices.
4. The transfer of files, images and MP3, between mobile phones.
5. Certain MP3 players and digital cameras to transfer files to and from
   computers.
6. Bluetooth technology headsets for smart phones and cell phones.
7. Data logging equipment that transmits data to a computer via Bluetooth
   technology.
8. Sony Playstation 3 and Nintendo Revolution will both use Bluetooth
   technology for their wireless controllers.

For Bluetooth, there are literally hundreds of different applications and
devices available for you to use or purchase. As you may already know,
Bluetooth is the most popular wireless technology in the world. It's very
reliable, very dependable, and very hard to crack into.

There are many other applications for Bluetooth in development now, many of
which plan to take the wireless age to the next level. Video game systems are
using Bluetooth technology as well, for their wireless controllers. This is
great news for gaming fans, as Bluetooth offers the best in wireless data 
transmission. If your curious about applications for Bluetooth that are still
in development, you can search on the internet. You can find all sorts of 
information, especially when it comes to Bluetooth. As the future arrives, you 
can expect Bluetooth to bring bigger and better things.


Bluetooth Profiles

The profile found in Bluetooth will describe how the technology is used.
Profiles can be best described as vertical slices through the protocol stack.
It will define options in each protocol that are mandatory for the profile.
The profile will also define the parameter ranges for each protocol. The
concept of the profile is used to decrease the risk of interoperability problems
between the different products. These profiles won't normally define any
additions to the Bluetooth specification, which is why you can add new profiles 
where you need them. The Bluetooth underlying technology is the same, only the s
pecific method that it's used is defined.

Generally speaking, all profiles of Bluetooth are based on the GAP (Generic
Access Profile). There are 9 profiles that fall in the GAP category, and they
are below:	

1. AVRCP -- Audio/Video Remote Control Profile
2. ESDP -- Extended Service Discovery Profile
3. CIP -- Common ISDN Access Profile
4. PAN -- Public Area Network Profile
5. HCRP -- Hardcopy Cable Replacement Profile
6. GAVDP -- Generic Audio/Visual Distribution Profile
7. A2DP -- Advanced Audio Distribution Profile
8. VDP -- Video Distribution Profile
9. HID -- Human Interface Device Profile

To put it another way, usage models will describe Bluetooth device applications
and the associated profiles that are used. The usage model focuses mainly on
three categories -- voice/data access points, peripheral interconnects, and PAN
(Personal Area Networking).

The voice and data access points involve connecting computing devices to
communicating devices through a wireless link. This way, data can be transferred
in a wireless manor, without the need of cables or other types of connectivity.
PAN  is another very important usage model with strong appeal to business
customers. Bluetooth networks are easy to set up in virtually any type of
environment. An example would be meeting others at a trade show.

Instead of having contact information beamed via infrared, business cards can
quickly and easily be transferred via Bluetooth wireless. The fact is that many
documents can be exchanged this very same way -- making the uses and
possibilities virtually endless.

The Bluetooth profile is very important to the specification, as it enables you
to do so much more. You can use peripherals and devices with the profiles, and
virtually anything else that you decide.

As Bluetooth expands and gets bigger and better, you can count on the profiles
to expand and get even more functions. If you have experience with Bluetooth
profiles, you should know exactly what they are and what you can do with them.
If not, all you need is a Bluetooth device -- and a vivid imagination.


Bluetooth And Infared

With new electrical devices being produced every day, the problem of connecting
things is becoming more and more complex in nature. The system that comprises
computers and other electronics makes use of varieties of wires, cables, etc.
These parts will communicate through light beams, lasers, radio signals, and
infrared. The problem however, is the devices and technology is often the
connection between each component. Therefore, most electronic systems aren't
used to their full extent due to the problems and imperfections.

To help simplify things, a solution was created the solution of Bluetooth.
Bluetooth is wireless and automatic, offering users a variety of features that
have simplified the art of connection. Bluetooth has revolutionized the
standard methods of connecting things to enabling almost anything to be connected 
to a single system.

Aside from Bluetooth, there are other ways of connecting wireless devices. One
example of such is the IR or infrared. Infrared allows low frequency light
waves to transmit signals to another component. This technology is easy to
create and the cost of putting the IR device into a system is rather low.

Infrared technology is a one to one process. Due to the limitation, you may
only send signals from one device to another, similar to a television set and
remote control. You can only transmit signals between the two although not with
a seperate system.

Aside from the fact that these two natures of infrared are obstacles to
acquiring results, these same qualities have worked in advantage to the
connection. Infrared devices need to be lined up directly, meaning too little
interference can occur between the transmitters and receivers.

The technology behind Bluetooth works by transmitting signals through low
frequency radio signals. The path of communication is working on 2.45 GHz,
which is the same frequency band used in ISM devices.


Connecting Many With Bluetooth

Constantly evolving, the technology of Bluetooth started off as a basic wireless
connection standard but has since then been adapted and proven with many
different uses and functions.

A good example is Bluetooth for cell phones. It enables mobile users to connect
to their hands free headset without using wires. Bluetooth technology will also
allow mobile phone users to connect with their hands free kit as well.
Another handy use of Bluetooth is file sharing. It allows the sharing of files
between two cell phones, between a cell phone and computer, which makes the
sharing of files a snap. If you have a cell phone and computer, you can easily
transfer data between the two.

Say for example you wanted to put an MP3 on your phone from your computer you
could do it easily with Bluetooth. All you would need is a Bluetooth adapter
for your computer. It doesn't stop with the swapping of files either, as you
can use your computer and phone to synchronise phone books, send SMS messages,
and much more.

Although Bluetooth may be dandy for cell phones, it also comes in handy for the
home office as well. Utilizing Bluetooth is a great way to set up a home office
- two computers, a printer, and even a scanner. They all can be connected using
Bluetooth technology with effective ranges of up to 10 meters.

The technology and devices of Bluetooth will be around for years and years to
come. As years go by, Bluetooth will provide even better wireless solutions for
different applications. Even though Bluetooth has a short range, it has that
short range for a reason. Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless technology -
which it continues to prove time and time again.


Bluetooth Wireless Networking

Bluetooth technology offers three different types of defined ranges, based on
output ranges. Class 1 devices are the most powerful, as they can have up to
100 mW of power, with a regular antenna giving them a range of around 130 -- 330
feet.

The class 2 devices are lower power, offering up to 2.5 mW of power. A regular
antenna will give them a range of around 50 -- 100 feet. Class 3 devices use
even less power, up to 1 mW of power to be exact. With a regular antenna, they
will have a range of around 16 -- 33 feet.

Even though you may not realize it, Bluetooth wireless technology has never been
intended for anything other than short distance types of communication. With
Bluetooth wireless, the short range is actually a benefit.

For one, the short range will reduce the change of interference between your
devices and those that belong to others who are nearby. Overall, this is a
basic type of security, designed to protect you and your devices.

Secondly, the lower power used for short range means a longer battery life.
Most Bluetooth devices will get their power from a battery, meaning that
anything you can do to lengthen the battery life is very important.

The wireless networking offered by Bluetooth is actually among the best, even
though it uses short range communication. Bluetooth is used with wireless
controllers, the internet, and even wireless headsets.

For the best in short range technology, Bluetooth is extremely hard to beat. If
you've never tried Bluetooth before, now is the time. It's the best with
wireless networking, especially for those who enjoy hands free talking on their
cell phone.


Bluetooth Technology Intro

The technology of Bluetooth is nothing new, but in many respects it can still
seem like more of a buzz word rather than an accepted technology. You may see
the ads for Bluetooth enabled devices, although you still may be wondering what
it is.

Capabilities The Bluetooth definition is a wireless technology that is a
worldwide specification for a small form factor, low cost solution that will
provide link between mobile devices and other electronic devices.

Similiar to 802.11 b/g wireless and many cordless telephone systems, Bluetooth
operates on 2.4 GHz radio signals. The 2.4 GHz band seems to be a bit crowded,
with interferences between the devices a bit hard to avoid. Telephones are now
being offered at the 5.8 GHz frequency band, which will help to remedy this.
The technical specifications of Bluetooth will indicate a maximum transfer rate
of 723 kbps with a range of 65 -- 328 feet, all depending on the class of that
particular device. The speed is a fraction of what is offered by wireless
standards, so it's obvious that Bluetooth doesn't really pose a threat to replacing your
wireless network.

Applications There are numerous products that will take advantage of Bluetooth
capabilities, such as laptops, PDAs, headphones, and even wireless printer
adapters.

A lot of laptops out there will include an onboard Bluetooth adapter which
allows the system to connect to any Bluetooth device right out of the box. For
computers that don't have an adaptor built right in, there are several USB
adaptors available for Bluetooth.

For an awesome technology, Bluetooth is actually hard to compete with. For
short range wireless, Bluetooth is easily one of the best. The standard for
Bluetooth keeps getting better and better, making it a wireless technology that
will be around for years and years to come.


Bluetooth Technical Operations

Bluetooth is a high speed, low powered wireless link technology that's designed
to connect phones or other portable equipment together with little to no work
required by the user. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require line of site
positioning to work.

Current prototype circuits are contained on a board that is 0.9 cm square, with
a much smaller circuit board being developed.

When one Bluetooth device comes in contact with another, they will automatically
exchange addresses and details of capability. Then, they can establish a 1 MB
link with security that they will use as required. The protocols involved with
handle both data and voice, with a very flexible topography.

The technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny, non expensive short range
tranceivers into the devices available today. The radio operates on the 2.45
GHz frequency band, and supports up to 721 KBps, along with three voice
channels.

Each devices offers a unique 48 bit address from the IEEE 802 standard, with the
connections being point to point or multipoint. The max range is 10 meters,
although it can be extended to 100 meters by increasing the power. The devices
are also protected from radio interference by changing their frequencies, also 
known as frequency hopping.

What's important, is the fact that Bluetooth devices won't drain battery life.

The specification targets power consumption of the device, limiting the drain
on the battery. The radio chip will consume only 0.3mA in stand by mode, which
is less than 5% of the power that standard phones use.

Bluetooth will also guarantee security at the bit level. The authentification
is controlled by the user via a 128 bit key. The radio signals can be coded
with anything up to 128 bit. With the frequency hopping, Bluetooth is already
very hard to listen into.

The baseband protocol is a combination of both circuit and packet switches.
Slots can be reserved for synchronous packets as well. Each packet will be
transmitted in a different hop frequency. Normally, a packet covers a single
slot although it can be extended to cover up to five slots.

Bluetooth can also support data channels of up to three simultaneous voice
channels. Therefore, it's possible to transfer the data while you talk at the
same time. Each individual voice channel will support 64 KB.

From a technical standpoint, Bluetooth is very different indeed. It's the best
wireless method in the world, surpassing even infrared. For communication on
the go, Bluetooth is indeed very hard to compete with.


Bluetooth Versions

Version 1.1 and earlier Since the technology of Bluetooth was introduced in
1998, several specification versions have been released. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B
had too many issues and problems for manufacturers to develop devices for
Bluetooth. The main issue was the lack of communication among the devices.
The core specification version 1.1 is the first successful operating version of
Bluetooth. Version 1.1 corrected a majority of the bugs and problems found in
earlier versions.

Version 1.2 Many of the newer Bluetooth devices, such as the newer cell phones
are being sold with the newer Bluetooth version 1.2. This version offers
backward compatability with Bluetooth 1.1, faster transmission speeds, received
signal strength, and a host controller interface (HCI) support for 3 wire UART.

Bluetooth version 2.0 It's true that there may be multiple communication
technologies, although they all share one common trait -- faster is better.
Bluetooth specialists realized this, and therefore worked on improving the
speeds of version 1.2.

The newest version, version 2.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) was accounced in 2004
and became available in late 2005.

Version 2.0 delivers data transfer rates of up to three times that of the
original version of Bluetooth. Version 2.0 also provides enhanced connectivity.
With Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, you'll be able to run more devices at the same time
with more efficiency.

Computers and even computer related devices are expected to be some of the first
devices to encorporate Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, followed of course by audio and
imaging devices.

Version 2.0 is backward compatible with previous versions, three times faster,
and offers an enhanced data rate of 2.1 MB a second. It also offers broadcast
and multicast support, along with a further enhanced bit error rate performance,
making it the best Bluetooth has ever seen.


Bluetooth And Apple

The Apple PowerBook G4's were among the first computers to offer Bluetooth
technology 2.0+EDR. The 2.0+EDR technology, which still backwards compatible
with 1.0, is up to three times faster than previous versions, offering maximum
data rate transfers of up to 3 MBps. Being the first company to certify a system 
with 2.0+EDR, Apple continues to make great use of the Bluetooth technology.

Full support In addition to the powerbook G4 portables, there are other
Bluetooth enabled computers available from Apple, including the iBook, iMac G5,
eMac, and the Power Mac G5.

Making life easier When you turn the Bluetooth feature on, your Mac can easily
perform a file transfer or even a synchronization. From the Bluetooth selection
menu, you can choose to either send a file or browse devices, quickly and
easily. Or, you can click the sync button in iSync to update your cell phone or 
Palm OS handheld.

The Mac and GSM/GPRS mobile phone with Bluetooth work to make each other more
useful. By using iSync, you can keep your phone updated without having to type
any info, as you can keep the information in the more manageable address book on
your Mac instead.

You can also use your Bluetooth enabled Mac to print documents and digital
images to select a printer that also supports the technology of Bluetooth. Or,
you can also use a headset to talk to your friends during an iChat session.
Your Mac also has the ability to use Bluetooth technology to communicate with
your Palm OS handheld. This way, you can perform a HotSync operation without
using any cables. You can also send your business card or calendar events
directly to someone else's handheld usingthe technology of Bluetooth.

The implementation of Bluetooth by Apple is the latest in a series of moves that
have caused great shift in the computer industry. Apple established USB as the
standard interface with the launching of the first Mac back in 1998.

Since then, Apple established the 802.11 wireless standard of networking with
the launch of the iBook and AirPort in 1999. During 2003, Apple launched
AirPort Extreme, which was based on the new 802.11g high speed technology of
wireless.

Now, Bluetooth helps to further strengthen the dominant position of the Mac in
wireless communications, helping to preserve Apple's reputation for being the
first to market with innovative technology that integrates right into the
operating system.


Bluetooth Security

These days, all communication technology faces the issue of privacy and identity
theft, with Bluetooth being no exception. Almost everyone knows that email
services and networks require security. What users of Bluetooth need to realize
is that Bluetooth also requires security measures as well.

The good news for Bluetooth users is that the security scares, like most scares,
are normally over dramatized and blown entirely out of proportion. The truth
being told, these issues are easy to manage, with various measures already in
place to provide security for Bluetooth technology.

It's true that there has been some Bluetooth phones that have been hacked into.
Most devices that are hacked into are normally those that don't have any type of
security at all.

According to Bluetooth specialists, in order to hack into a Bluetooth device,
the hacker must:

1. Force two paired devices to break their connection.
2. Steal the packets that are used to resend the pin.
3. Decode the pin.

Of course, the hacker must also be within range of the device, and using very
expensive developer type equipment. Most specialists recommend that you have a
longer pin, with 8 digits being recommended.

Fundamentals of security The "pairing process" is one of the most basic levels
of security for Bluetooth devices. Pairing, is two or more Bluetooth devices
that recognize each other by the profiles they share -- in most cases they both
must enter the same pin.

The core specifications for Bluetooth use an encryption algorithm, which is
completely and entirely secure. Once the devices pair with each other, they too
become entirely secure.

Until they have successfully paired, the Bluetooth devices won't communicate
with each other. Due to this pairing process and the fact that it is short
range -- Bluetooth technology is considered to be secure.

As the news has indicated, experienced hackers have developed ways to get around
this level of basic security. There are ways to get around this threat, as you
can install software to prevent hackers from getting in.

With Bluetooth becoming more and more popular, it's really no wonder that
security is always in question. As Bluetooth gets bigger and better, security
will always be something that no one really takes lightly.

If you've been concerned about Bluetooth security in the past, rest assured that
newer devices will offer bigger and better security. Preventing hackers from
getting in is something every owner is concerned about -- and the manufacturer's
are very aware.


The Future Of Bluetooth

Because it meets the basic needs of connectivity in close range, Bluetooth has a
very bright future ahead of it. Bluetooth is actually the result of initiatives
from nine leading communications and computer industry giants, including 3-COM,
Sony, Lucent, IBM, Nokia, Microsoft, etc.

Since the forming of the original group, more than 1,800 manufacturers around
the world have joined the initiative. According to reports, the Bluetooth
technology is expected to be built into more than 100 million devices, with over
670 million enabled Bluetooth devices.

Resulting from the amazing success of WAP (Wireless Application Protocol), the
adoption of smart phones and hand held devices, Bluetooth can easily have an
amazing impact on your day to day life. Bluetooth is one of the key
technologies that can help to make the mobile information society happen, by 
blurring the possibilities between home, the office, and the outside world.

The seamless integration and connectivity that Bluetooth promises will make it
possible to explore a wide range of interactive and highly transparent
personalized services which were actually quite difficult to dream of simply
because of the complexity involved with making such devices communicate with 
each other.

Many Bluetooth pilot products have already been rolled into the market and
backed by big vendors, which is a healthy sign for the overall acceptance of the
technology. The support for Bluetooth isn't limited to companies that develop
only Bluetooth enabled products.

The applications for Bluetooth can have great impacts on other industries as
well. The adoption of Bluetooth technology is expected to spread throughout the
industry of computers.

Unlike infrared technology, Bluetooth is used by many different wireless
devices. Bluetooth offers exceptional quality for short range wireless, even
going through walls and obstructions. While infrared is the biggest competitor
at this time, Bluetooth far surpasses it, proving to millions that it is the 
wireless communication technology of the present day and age.

In the beginning, Bluetooth started with version 1.0, then gradually moved from
there. The current version is 2.0+EDR, with another version currently in
development. The technology behind the Bluetooth specification always getting
better and better, which is why it's so popular.

In the future, you can expect the technology behind Bluetooth to get better.
Bluetooth has proven to be the wireless standard of the future, offering you
wireless connectability for hundreds of different devices. For cell phones or
other forms of wireless connections, Bluetooth is the one technology that you 
don't want to find yourself without.





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