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Computer Programming

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What You Should Know About Learning Computer Programming

So you want to learn computer programming. You've made a good choice. Computer
programming is a very exciting field of study. In fact, it has experienced some
impressive growth over the past 10 years and shows no sign of stopping. It is
one of the few disciplines that experts say will survive for the next couple of
centuries. It's dynamic, very challenging and quite rewarding either as a job or
as a personal pursuit. If learning computer programming is your goal this year,
here are some things you might want to know about this field:

Computer programming wears a lot of hats.

The word programming is sometimes alternated with coding. Quite simply, it is a
job that requires writing the source code used by computer programs. To become a
computer programmer, you must learn the techniques on how to write this code.
Since computer programs vary in design and function, so will the manner with
which their source codes are written.

This is why computer programming cannot be used to refer to a single computer
language. It is, in fact, a term that refers to many different computer
languages. If you want to learn computer programming, take a pick among
languages such as COBOL (old but still reliable), FORTRAN (still used in many
engineering applications), Java, HTML/XML, Visual Basic, C/C++, PHP, Perl and
Python, among others.

What you'll be learning

It would help if you have a basic knowledge of computer operation just before
you come in for classes. However, there are many introductory courses on
computer programming where students are not required to have a background in
computers. The only drawback is that you'll start from step 1, literally. Try
to familiarize yourself with computers first before taking a beginner class in
computer programming.

Your first courses in programming school will usually consist of an overview of
the computer programming industry -- its history, pioneers, groundbreaking
developments, etc. You will then be introduced to the fundamentals of the
discipline, including its theories, definitions and basic concepts. This is
done to ensure that you have a good foundation in the language you will be
specializing in.

Once that's done, your instructor will begin teaching you programming itself,
such as how to write commands and queries. Your ultimate goal as a computer
programmer is mainly to write a series of very detailed instructions using a
language that a computer can understand and execute. During the course of your
learning, this is exactly what your instructor will teach you.

Where to learn

You shouldn't have any problems locating a school that teaches computer
programming. You will probably find a good school in your area. Depending on 
the type of course you enroll in, classes will usually meet at least once a week
(some meet 4 times a week) and last from 45 minutes to an hour. If you prefer,
you can also learn online, provided you're a self-starter and has the patience
and will to follow through.

Personal characteristics for learning computer programming

It is said that you learn best if you take your temperament and personality
into consideration. When you want to dabble or become an expert in computer
programming, it's no different. There are certain characteristics that
successful computer programmers exhibit. For one, learning computer programming
entails plenty of mathematics and logic, which means you will need to have a
good amount of self-discipline and patience during class and especially during
practical applications. You'll also have to be creative and imaginative, so you
can approach a problem in more ways than one.

A Basic Introduction to Computer Programming Topics

Computer programming is one of the fields under computer science. While
computer science refers to the study of computer applications, computer
programming deals with the basics of a computer program -- how it works, how it
is designed, how it is fixed and why. If you're planning to learn programming
soon, here is an introduction to computer programming topics you're likely to

The basics of computer programming Like most disciplines, you will begin by
learning the fundamentals of computer programming. Depending on your instructor
or curriculum, you will probably be introduced to the history of programming and
its languages and find out about what has occurred over the years through a

You will also be introduced to the basic concepts and theories of programming
and how they have evolved over the years. You'll be able to see how fast
programming has progressed over the centuries and learn the significant
developments in this field. You will also encounter topics such as computer
hardware, software, systems and language. You will have to learn these basics
in order to understand how your field of specialization can contribute. This
may seem too troublesome but really, you need to have a good background in the
progress of programming to help give you a good grasp of its fundamentals.

Computer software The result of all your hard work is actually the computer
software, so expect this topic to be included in your introductory course. Some
of the topics you'll find under this subject include application software,
programming software and system software. During classes dealing with these
subjects, you'll learn how to use programming tools, database management
systems, assemblers, debuggers, text and source code editors, and the like.

Programming Finally, you will be introduced to the topic you've been raring to
learn -- programming. Here you'll learn different types programming processes,
styles and methods. You will learn the different types of programming including
concurrent, functional, declarative (event-driven), imperative, object-oriented
and Parsing.

Probably the next topics you'll learn are the basic components of every
computer program, such as the source code and the API or application
programming interface. You'll also learn how instruction is carried out to
command a computer to execute a particular set of directions.

You'll also learn programming languages, which will introduce you to the kind
of language you have chosen to specialize in. Your instructor might also
present your class with a simple comparison of the different types of languages
in use today and you'll also probably learn the types of languages that have
lost favor or are already obsolete. You'll learn semantics, dialects and

This is also where you'll begin learning how to program or write codes.
Although your learning at this point will consist of lectures, a good part of
your class will be spent working hands-on so you can begin practicing what the
instructor has taught you. This is how your progress as a computer programmer
will be evaluated.

The process of programming One of the earliest topics you will encounter when
learning computer programming is the process with which codes and computer
languages are designed and produced. The process of programming includes
several steps, such as:

1. Definition of the problem. 2. Design or plan of the solution. 3. Design of
the code to be used for the program. 4. Testing and evaluation of the program.
5. Documentation.

Debugging, testing and maintenance Probably the final list of topics you'll
learn as your introduction to computer programming is application. In these
topics, you'll learn how to test the program you have written, spot and locate
any errors and correct them.

Information on Computer Programming

Many of today's companies, businesses, and organizations depend largely on
computers and computer software. Nearly all our business and organizational
processes, from accounting to auditing, editing to writing, and communications
to schedule organizing, all work best with the help of computers. There are
many different programs that are associated with all these processes, and they
deal with helping computer users make spreadsheets, tally earnings, check for
grammatical or spelling errors in a document, and organize a person's schedule.
These computer programs are made by, and are constantly updated by computer

The process of computer programming is by no means easy. It starts with
developing a program: here, computer programmers will often work with marketers
or even sociologists or social psychologists. Together, this team, along with
many other members, will determine what computer programs a market might need
in order to function better, whether in the workplace or at home. The program's
features are developed, with the psychologists or market experts making
suggestions, and computer programmers looking at the feasibility of these

Once the program's features have been determined, it's time for the computer
programmers to go to work. They will then start writing the program. This is
done through the process of coding, wherein the programmer types in his or her
special language, with the aim of giving rise to a program that will function
in the way that it is desired. There are many different computer programming
languages that are available: all of them have their own special features, and
it is not unlikely for programmers to be adept in only one or two languages.
This can make their work easier, because a computer programming language needs
to be learned in enough depth to write it out and identify errors later.

Once the program has been written out, it has to be tested. This can be done,
at the first level, by the computer programmer: the programmer will test the
program on different operating systems, with different microprocessor speeds,
and then, eventually, with beta users. In the past, software companies did not
immediately release their software unless it was completely free from errors.
Today, however, many errors might not be pinpointed early on, so beta versions
are released, often with the request that users report any bugs so that they
can be immediately fixed.

Once testing has revealed different kinds of program errors, the programmer can
then debug the program or troubleshoot these errors. The errors will often arise
from coding errors, and the computer programmer will often go back to the code
and make the necessary corrections. If there are no coding errors and the
program is still not functioning properly, then the programmer may have to
modify the code or rewrite the program altogether.

A computer programmer is also in charge of updating a program and making sure
that it fits a growing market's needs. In this case, the computer programmer
may have to check back with the marketing team and the social psychologist in
order to find out if there are new things that the market might be interested
in. better yet, the computer programmer can ask for suggestions from the market
itself in order for the program to function better. For more information on
computer programming, talk to a computer science expert, or read on computer
programs and the process of coding.

The Benefits of Computer Programming

Many of the technologies we enjoy today are the result of computer programming.
Technologies that allow us to utilize and enjoy the Internet, desktop and laptop
computers, mobile phones, video games, even those that run automated processes
in homes, offices, banks and airports are available thanks to the genius of
computer programming. However, the uses of computer programming are not limited
to these alone. It actually has numerous benefits, such as:

It allows the programmer to have a better understanding of computers.

Computers are run by programs. Without programs, computers are nothing but
steel, plastic and alloy, essentially useless. With a background knowledge in
programming, it makes it easier to understand how computers work, which helps
users view the equipment as more than a tool.

A better understanding of computers also allows users to determine the hows and
whys of the system, which helps them become more effective in using the
equipment. Knowing how programs work makes it easy to understand their
limitations, such as what they can and cannot do. This helps users maintain
realistic expectations about computers and learn how to maximize their

Programmers are able to create newer, more useful programs.

Computer programming is responsible for creating very valuable programs.
Operating systems, for example, the heart and soul of every computer, are made
up of thousands, even millions of smaller programs. If you have the right
skills in computer programming, it will be easy to literally build a program
from scratch and create a very useful tool that may be utilized in many
different fields or industries.

Programmers are able to correct bugs in a program.

A background in computer programming will allow you to look at a problematic
program and do more than just sit helpless. If there is a glitch or bug in the
program, it will be easy for a trained individual to look at the system, detect
and locate the problem and make the necessary corrections. Testing the program
will then be easier once you understand what the defective issue was.

It allows programmers to improve an existing program.

Modifying a program is the realm of programmers who deal with specialist
applications. Computer programmers, especially those who have the training and
experience, can take a look at an existing program and determine whether or not
it has the necessary components to become a highly optimized program. If it is
not, they can modify the program and improve it, creating a newer, better
version. This is usually done if the program is problematic or if there are
bugs in the system.

It provides programmers more creative ways to entertain.

There is a huge market for games and other forms of entertainment that computer
programming can support. New video games, mobile games, animations, graphics and
file types are the results of programming.

Computer programming is an exciting career.

For individuals looking for a great future in information technology, computer
programming is an excellent career path to follow. According to the figures
estimated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the field of computer science will
continue to grow. The need for programmers, for example, is predicted to
increase by more than 70% by 2010, which is more than a 50% increase in the
number currently required.

Computer programming and the future

One of the most exciting benefits of computer programming is that it offers us
a glimpse of the future. The possibilities being offered today, such as CGIs,
voice-automated technology, artificial intelligence, more sophisticated
programs and the like are just a few of the things we can expect. With computer
programming, many aspects of our lives have gotten easier, quicker, safer and
much more interesting.

What You Need to Know About a Computer Programming Course

Computer programming may seem like a highly complicated discipline but at its
roots, every program actually begins as a simple set of instructions. Computer
programming is essentially the design of a simple program in order to create a
more complicated program. It is currently one of the most sought-after courses
and is also a career that presents plenty of opportunities in a very exciting
field. If you're curious about what taking a computer programming course will
be like, here are some important information you can use.

The course

Computer programming is one of the disciplines under computer science. It
requires study and practical application of theories and concepts. Simply put,
computer programming is the process of writing and creating a group of
instructions that a computer can read and execute.

Computer programming is not a single, one-size-fits-all discipline. For one,
the task of programming (or coding) involves several computer languages. These
languages have different uses and as such, will often require a different set
of instructions. JavaScript, for example, may be a computer language but it is
not the same as HTML or COBOL or Visual Basic. There are also certain
sub-disciplines in computer programming that lead to a specific field of
specialization. Students must determine which field of computer programming
they want to focus on. If they want to work for companies that create video
games, for example, they will have to choose courses that teach graphics and
animation, among others.

In the course of study in computer programming, a programmer must be able to
learn multiple concepts and theories on top of the technical stuff, such as
computer language conventions, elements and important operators used to create
a source code that will later produce a computer program.

Computer programming is an essential phase in the development of software and
is an integral part of software engineering.

How learning is obtained

There are two major ways computer programming can be learned -- through
classroom type instruction or online, as part of a distance learning program.
Classroom type instruction is still the most common way of attending classes
for students but online classes are fast becoming the method of choice.

What to expect from the course

A computer programming course is usually composed of lectures and hands-on
assignments. The instructor uses lectures to teach theories and concepts in
programming and to provide students with an introduction to the discipline.
Generally, students will be listening to lectures while using computers, a way
for instructors to allow participants to immediately apply what they have

Other than access to a computer, students may also be required to obtain
textbooks to be used as references during coursework. Some lessons, such as
those used in online classes, may also be downloaded from a website.

Who should take the course

Computer programming is not for everyone. Just because you love computers and
have sufficient curiosity about how they work doesn't always make you the ideal
candidate for this course. Computer programming requires a lot of patience,
attention to detail, creativity, logic and common sense. It also requires
careful study and understanding of certain subjects such as mathematical and
engineering concepts.

What to expect upon completion of the course

Once a course has been completed, a computer programmer is ready to be hired
for entry-level jobs in companies that design software. If the programmer
chooses a higher level of study, he can also increase the chances of being
hired for higher pay, particularly if he chooses a field of specialization. A
computer programming course can provide a graduate access to different fields
as well, including banking, finance, research & development and database

What You Should Know About a Computer Programming Career

Computer programming is one of the most important and exciting careers today.
It is also a field that offers plenty of job opportunities for graduates. It's
one of the best fields of endeavor for people who love technology and are
willing to try out new things. If you're considering pursuing a computer
programming career, here are some things that you should know:

What is computer programming? Computer programming is basically the process of
writing codes to create a computer program. A programming language is used to
write this code, also known as the source code. Computer programming is
actually an umbrella term that encompasses all types of programming involving
the use of computers. The design and method utilized to write a source code
will depend on the type of computer language used for the job. Some of the most
common computer languages include BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, C++, Java, Visual
Basic, Python and PHP.

The job of computer programming also includes testing the source code,
debugging it to check for flaws and weaknesses and maintaining it to ensure
optimum performance.

Creating the code The soul of computer programming is the creation of the
source code, which can either be brand new or something created to modify or
improve upon an already existing code. The object of the source code is to
build a program that will perform a particular series of tasks based on a
specific set of commands. This is called customization.

The end result of writing the source code is a computer program. In software
engineering, computer programming is an important initial phase.

What does a computer programmer do? The main job of a computer programmer is to
write the codes that serve as the foundation of software programs. He is also
tasked to test, troubleshoot, debug and maintain the program to ensure its
quality and reliability.

Generally, the tasks that a computer programmer must perform are assigned by
another person, usually the system analyst. The computer programmer's job is
then to write the program, test it, modify it if necessary and ensure that it
passes compatibility and quality standards. If errors are found, it is the
computer programmer's job to ensure that they are corrected.

The job of a computer programmer usually requires hours upon hours spent in
front of a computer to design and write a computer program. Depending on the
type of program being written, its purpose and the complexity of the commands
required in order for a computer to execute the series of steps involved,
writing a program can take several months to several years to complete.

The length of time it often takes for a program to be completed often
necessitates having a single program broken down into a smaller series of
steps. These steps will then be assigned as tasks to a group of programmers who
will work on them independently. The final step is to put the end results and
produce one coherent and useful computer program.

Computer programming is a very dynamic field and involves plenty of imagination
and discipline. Although there are set standards for the tasks involved, the
profession itself does not require certification tests from government
agencies. There are also no state and federal licenses to obtain.

How much does a computer programming job pay? That will depend on the
experience and level of expertise of the programmer. Most entry level
programmers earn a minimum of about $33,000 a year while mid-level programmers
earn approximately $50,000 a year. For senior level programmers and those who
have several years of experience behind them, their typical take-home pay
averages at about $65,000 a year. Consultants, some managers and those who have
advanced well in their computer programming career are often paid more.

The Different Sides of Computer Game Programming

Many people will play computer games without any knowledge of how much work
went into the game. True, a lot of thought and creativity had to be employed in
order to make the game work, but the game also required a good deal of computer
programming and knowledge of different computer programming languages in order
to make the game not only feel real, but look attractive as well. There are
many sides of computer game programming, so if you are interested in computer
game programming and may want to take up courses in the future, take a look at
this list.

The game physics programmer is someone who directs how a game uses physics in
order to look correct and feel correct. In most cases, a computer game will not
completely simulate the physics of a real world, but some important aspects of
physics may have to come into play for some games. For instance, wind
resistance might be important to dogfights, while the fluid but retarded
movements of some characters in water might be needed for a role-playing game.

The artificial intelligence programmer is the one in charge of developing the
logical sequence of the game itself. For instance, when a game involves finding
a path, employing strategies, or giving rise to enemy tactics, an artificial
intelligence programmer may be called in to make a game smart -- in other words,
to make the game think on its own. In general, the computer language used for
artificial intelligence programming is simpler than other languages, and it can
be shared with the game's players.

The graphics programmer uses a series of codes and algorithms in order to
provide graphics in the world of the game. In the modern age, a graphics
programmer has to work in a three-dimensional environment, and should therefore
have knowledge of calculus, vector math, and other algebra concepts that may be
needed for specializing in rendering such images. There are only very few
graphics programmers, and they may usually demand high wages for their work.

A sound programmer will provide sounds in terms of characters' dialogues,
music, and even sounds that can make the game seem more real, such as the sound
of crunching leaves or grass as characters walk on them. The gameplay programmer
will add to the experience of the game, and will do so by focusing on the game's
feel and strategy.

Computer game programming will also require a team of scripters, who are also
usually the designers of the game. These scripters write the code of the game
itself, usually with a basic computer language. Also needed are user interface
programmers, or the UI: the UI programmers will create a library of different
aspects that can be used across a wide variety of worlds within the game, or a
wide variety of games within a manufacturer. The UI programming language
involves a good deal of math, with the aim of producing special effects.

Also important is an input programmer, who writes codes for how different kinds
of hardware, such as the keyboard, joystick, or mouse, will affect the game. The
network programmer will find ways for the game to work on a network, where
people can play against each other. A porting programmer ensures that the game
can work on different platforms and operating systems.

Overseeing all these tasks is the lead game programmer. These are only a few
aspects of computer game programming. As the field widens, more and more
programmers of different kinds will have to be called in and identified as

Computer Programming and Its Rich History

If it's the history of programming that has to be retold, then it is safe to
begin an account with the difference engine of Charles Babbage way back in
1822. Even from the time when computers were so simple, they still needed to
have instructions so that they will be able to perform tasks that are inputted
to them. This set of instructions is what is known today as computer

During the difference engine's era, the gears needed to be changed manually
which would then result into the calculations being made. All of that was
changed when signals of electricity replaced physical motion with the US
Government's 1942 machine named ENIAC. The concept of accepting programming was
also followed by this machine.

To make programming faster, two vital concepts which directly influenced
programming languages were developed in 1945 by John Von Neumann, who was then
with the Institute for Advanced Study. The first concept was known as the
shared-program method. This concept dictated that the hardware had to be
non-complex and need not be hand-wired for every program. Intricate
instructions were used to control this type of hardware which made
reprogramming quicker.

The second concept called the 'conditional control transfer' gave birth to code
blocks which can be used even in different orders or the so-called subroutines.
The next part of the concept was logical branching. With this, the concept of
having code blocks that can be used and reused was born.

By 1949, the Short Code language came out. It became the mother of electronic
device computer language. With this language, the programmer was required to
use 0's and 1's instead of the usual statements. 1951 marked the appearance of
compiler named A-0 by Grace Hopper. This program translated all the 0's and 1's
for the computer. This gave way to much quicker programming.

FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslating System) was introduced in 1957 which was also the
first key language. It was designed for IBM for scientific computation. This
language included the GOTO, DO and IF statements. FORTRAN's forte was not
business computing, though. It was a good program for number handling but not
for business computations.

COBOL was then developed in 1959. It was designed as a businessman's language.
The COBOL's program was comparable to an essay where there are 4-5 sections
comprising a major whole. This made it easier to study.

The LISP language (developed for artificial intelligence study) also known as
the Cambridge Polish was developed in 1958 by John McCarthy. This programming
language is highly abstract and specific that is why it is still being used
today. The LISP can store lists and modify them on its own.

In that same year, the Algol language was produced. This became the mother of
the Pascal language, C and C++, and also Java. Algol also had the first proper
grammar called the Backus-Naar form or BNF. Algol 68, which was the next
version, was a harder version to use. Due to this difficulty, Pascal came into

Niklaus Wirth introduced the Pascal language in 1968. It was a necessary means
of teaching then. It was a combination of the following languages: ALGOL,
FORTRAN and COBOL. It was also Pascal that improved the pointer data form. Its
downfall was caused by its lack of variable groups. Modula-2 then appeared but
C was already popular among many users.

C by Dennis Ritchie (1972, used by Unix) was comparable to Pascal but its
precursors were the B and BCPL. It is also being used in Windows, Linux and
MacOS. OOP (Object Oriented Programming) was developed in 1970's until the
80's. This developed into the C++ language in 1983. This language can
manipulate many tasks all at the same time. This is also the chosen language
courses in AP Computer Science. In 1987, Perl (Practical Extraction and
Reporting Language) was developed.

Java soon followed in 1994. It has yet many goals to reach especially with its
slow-running programs. But there are high hopes that a lot is in store in the
future for this language. Microsoft has also developed VB or Visual Basic which
uses widgets and these are now widely used.

The future holds many more developments for computer programming. It may have
started on a crude method but looking at the languages in use today, there were
so many developments that we can only wonder what 'impossibilities' could be
made possible very soon.

Why Hardware Development Could Mean the Future of Computer Programming

Computer programming is also known as software program or sometimes it is
simply called 'program'. Whatever name it's called, its purpose is to provide
instructions to a computer machine. If there is one thing that a computer needs
to be able to function (aside from electricity, of course!), it would be
computer programs. The executor of the instructions is the central processor.

Computer programming is categorized into two functional lines which are the
application and system software. And when it comes to working on these matters,
the experts are the so-called computer programmers or software developers.

But where there is software, there should also exist the hardware. Generally
speaking, hardware devices are any physical things that are being used in
computer manipulation. Examples are circuit boards, keyboards and processors.
The development of hardware plays a major role on the advancement of computer

This is because most computer programs are embedded in hardware. This means
that some programs that are stored in the computer can be accessed by an
initial program that is stored in its ROM for booting. The process of booting
is to be able to recognize and also initialize all system features.

After the initialization process, the primary program of the computer would
load the operating system which would set the program counters to initiate
usual operations. Totally self-sufficient, a hardware device could have some
embedded firmware in controlling its operation.

Nowadays, there are a number of hardware development tools in the market. Along
with some software development kits are the hardware development tools that are
designed to allow users to have control on design flow processes. There are
many different types to choose from. There are development boards for hardware
that are used in assisting designers for systems and software to validate
designs. For example, there are tools that are used in SoC prototypes, or there
are tools that combine several device features such as Flash programmer or
Memory emulator.

Going back to the basics, there are numerous computer programs that would run
concurrently on just one computer. This process is called multitasking. And
multitasking can run on either software or hardware systems.

Operating systems that are modern are able to run several programs through the
so-called process scheduling -- this is software system that switches the
central processing unit amongst processes. By doing this, users are able to
interact with every single program while it is being run. As to hardware,
modern multiprocessors or computers that are equipped with multicore processor
might run several programs.

'Heard of the term open source hardware? There is currently no real definition
of this term but this is generally understood as open source software usage
alongside hardware. Also, this is the free discharge of information on the
hardware (release on schematics, size, design and other information). This is
the latest in open source hardware information and logic design sharing is a
known open source hardware form.

Designers of open hardware often meet to discuss design problems and their
corresponding solutions; they also assist each other in looking for parts; they
also meet to converse about recent developments in their works.

Since it is believed that the development of software is quite limited (and
might even have reached its peak), the focus on progression is now on hardware
development. With the many hardware development tools in the market nowadays,
the world could look forward to more innovations in the not-so-distant future:
or maybe even tomorrow.

Computer Programming: Working In a Team

Computer programming requires some very intricate work. This is the type of
work that thrives on details and people who work in this field understand that
the absence of even the minute elements can spell a huge difference in the
overall result. If a programmer fails to correct this problem, it can lead to
errors down the line. As a result, bugs will appear in the system and errors
will emerge later on. Programming is also taxing work, requiring hours upon
hours of writing, testing and debugging. This is why computer programming
thrives on team work. Without team work, a single computer program can take
decades to complete.

Although one programmer has the necessary skills and knowledge to work
competently on a problem or even create a program, he or she can only do so
much. Creating the source code for an operating system, for example, will
require thousands of manhours from a single programmer and most probably, he or
she will only be halfway through. There just isn't enough time for one or even
two programmers to work effectively to produce a usable program.

Team profile So what constitutes a team in computer programming? A team is
usually headed by the team leader, such as a systems analyst or senior
programmer. The senior programmer is usually a person who has had years of
training and experience behind him. His task is to supervise the team, lead in
brainstorming and problem solving sessions, delegate assignments, check the
correctness of the coding, dispense advice and recommendations and lead in
debugging and software maintenance.

The team leader is the one who holds the team together and ensures there is a
well coordinated effort that will lead to the desired results. All team members
report to him and depending on the size of the project, the team leader may have
an assistant or another leader to work with.

The team is usually composed of junior or entry level programmers, particularly
those who may have the qualifications but not the number of years' worth of
experience yet. Depending on what the team leader wants, a junior programmer
may be tasked to work on his own on much simpler assignments or he may be
assigned as part of a group. This group may consist of other entry level
programmers or more experienced professionals.

The members of a team are chosen based on their expertise. At the beginning of
a project, the team leader, along with other more senior programmers, will try
to break down the problem into components, which will consist of tasks. Tasks
can vary according to complexity and function and will be assigned to a team
who has the skills to complete them.

The number of programmers in a team can be as small as 3 or it can number in
the dozens or even hundreds. Again, it all depends on the size of the project
and the availability of resources.

Team work is a necessary component of computer programming. It helps pool a
group's resources and form a coordinated effort in order to produce a
particular program or software. In some cases, such as in exceptionally huge
projects, some teams may work alternately or in shifts, which makes it
necessary that a team is capable of sustaining coordination among them.

Team work drives computer programming. A vast majority of the computer programs
and software we enjoy today -- from the operating systems to the video games to
the technology that run our phones -- were produced not by a single programmer
but by a team. Whatever it is that has made using computers and other forms of
technology that much easier and more convenient is something we owe to a team
of well-trained and highly skilled computer programmers.

Where to Find Online Magazines for Computer Programming

Computer programming is a field that lives on trends. This makes it important
that programmers, computer enthusiasts and other experts in the field
continuously update their skills and knowledge to remain competitive and
relevant. Online magazines, for one, are an excellent source of new information
about the discipline. There are several of these magazines that are very useful,
particularly to students and professionals of computer programming. Below is a
list of online magazines that you might want to check out:

C++ Source

C++ Source is an excellent online magazine for users of this language. The mag
is filled with very informative feature articles, news and updates about C++
and its practitioners. There is also a section that offers tutorials for those
who are still unfamiliar with C++, which makes this a very useful resource for
students and professionals alike. To access the mag, go to and
click on the link to cppsource.

Doctor Dobb's Journal

Dr. Dobb's Journal is one of the top online magazines that are currently active
today. The mag features articles, tips, advice, book and software reviews,
source codes and other resources that computer programming practitioners will
find very useful.

Developer is an independent online magazine that offers plenty of
information for professionals in the fields of computer programming and
software development. So whether you're an enthusiast or a full-fledged
programmer, a software engineer or a database designer, this online magazine
holds a good variety of topics for you.

You can also subscribe to their online newsletter or peruse the website for
articles and blogs. The site ( also has an FAQ section
that you might want to check out. This is quite useful if you have a question
about a particular issue.

Methods & Tools

This free online magazine is available either as a PDF file or a text issue. It
offers some very practical advice and information about software engineering and
development that professionals in this field will find very valuable. Past
articles and issues may be downloaded from the archives -- earliest issues date
back to 1999. The site also has links to news, facts and information about
software development tools that you might find useful.


Byte is not exactly an online magazine but it's too useful to pass up. The most
sought-after features in this site are its articles, many of which were written
by computer programming experts. The archive section which contains the columns
and articles go back to 1994. To keep updated about the discipline, you can
check out the site regularly for some very practical articles written by those
who know computer programming best.

Leading-Edge Java

Leading-Edge Java is another online publication from but it caters
to users and developers of Java. So if you are a professional devoted to the
language, you'll find this mag quite useful. Here, everything you'll need to
pursue and refine your knowledge and skills in Java technology are yours for
the clicking -- news, write-ups, interviews with other professionals, tools,
tutorials and APIs.

Visual Systems Journal

VSJ ( is an online magazine for computer programming that offers
a huge variety of information for users of different computer languages. This
is the perfect resource if you're using multiple languages or would like to
learn more. It mostly offers technical information which beginner and more
experienced programmers will like. It includes technologies and languages such
as Java, XML, Visual Basic, database programming, .NET and web services, among

Computer Programming Functions: Get to Know What They Are

When it comes to computer programming vocabulary, there are so many
terminologies that people who do not have enough know-how tend to become lost
and confused. One term could be translated into so many different names in
different languages. For example, the following words are quite similar:
Functions, Programs, Subroutines, Procedures, Subprograms, or Subqueries. The
only question now is which of these terms could stand on their own.

Theoretically speaking, computer programming avoids the duplication of any code
in multiple spaces. For example, one institution utilizing the programs could
have some libraries of different thousands or even more programs with billions
of basic code lines. With such intricate case, duplication could still be
avoided. Let us say that an error message occurs because the collection now
needs to have an additional 'member'.

A good example is the addition of another global currency called the Euro. If
each and every program will be told to update itself because of this new
addition, it could be complex. But with sub-programs or functions specifically
designed to handle diverse situations, then the only function that would take
care of the change would be the one assigned to handle such a scenario.

In the same way that we write new programs, many of the components that it will
need are already in existence (e.g. accessing a certain file to dig up a certain
data, computing inventories on hand). In cases such as this, a good alternative
to writing different source code lines to work on the new function (and
eventually replication of the code onto numerous other programs), the
sub-program is accessed to work on the specified function.

In a handful of programming languages, there are certain parameters that are
being passed from a specific program name to the program that is being called
to do a task. A secondary program usually makes the values altered and then the
control is brought back to the main program. These actions could be levels
deeper. The various programs that are being used to call each other are written
in so many varying languages. The reasons behind this are: to have a reasonable
controllable function pieces and having various languages means being better
able to suit different function types.

To further define the uses of programming functions, a function may appear in
two different locations or even a single location. This depends on whether it
is multi-line or single-line function. A function that is single line is one
that gives back a value after performing tasks (all of this in a single line).
The multi-line function, however, is stretched on many different lines.

A single line function could show in a code block all because it only responds
when called by a certain name. The multi-line function does otherwise. If it is
a multi-line function that is being defined in a block of code, then the
statements that follow the definition are done in a non-sequential manner.

In its simplicity, functions are code blocks that can be reusable. These code
blocks often return single values (sometimes they don't'). Common examples of
these code blocks are Mathematical functions (e.g. tan or log), date functions
(figures between two dates), or string functions (looking for incidents of 1
string located within another string). Functions are also kept separately from
the primary program code. A lot of programming language has specific functions
which are delegated as entry points to a certain program.

Knowing what functions are in computer programming could take sometime to
non-computer savvy individuals. But the basics are all here. Looking at the
many complex things that functions do, you get to appreciate the things that
the computer does for you each day, don't you?

Looking Adeptly at Programming Function Examples

Before looking at the different examples of programming functions, it is best
to understand the purpose and definition of function. A function is the means
by which someone who uses a program can execute a code block which has two
purposes: to finish a certain task and to return values. Although functions are
expected to return a certain value, it is not always that values are returned.

A function is also considered as a procedure in some programming languages. On
the other hand, functions are commonly known as any term that is being used in
referring to names of code blocks. Take note that it is the C programming
language which solely uses the keyword function. Functions accept restrictions,
they also return values, and they are maintained on a separate location from the
code of primary program. The C language uses main function as the point of entry
to certain programs.

Functions can show up in a single or two locations. This is dependent on
whether the function is single line or multi-line. Having a single line
function means a value is returned after the performances of work (in a single
line) while the multi-line function is broadened over different lines.

Perhaps, the most common example of a programming function is a mathematical
function. Log and tan are examples of mathematical functions. The other two
known functions are string functions and the date functions.

Simply defined, a programming function allows you to assign certain values
where results can be calculated in a matter of seconds while saving yourself
from the task of doing the computations manually.

On the declaration or calling of a function which has two or more parameters,
the use of comma is needed to separate the different parameters. One function
declaration could resemble this:

function print_two_strings($var1, $var2) { echo $var1; echo "\n"; echo $var2;
return NULL; }

For these functions to be called, a value must be assigned to the parameters,

Function call:

Print two strings ("hi", "guys");

The output should appear as:

hi guys

One other good way to have active parameters is the use of PHP's integral
functions such as func get args, func get arg, and func num args functions.
These functions are able to calculate arithmetic means of any values that are
placed onto them and an output is derived. An example:

mean(35, 43, 3);

The output is then:

Mean: 27

A programming function is usually best when it returns some value or
information. Functions do calculations, indeed, but it is also useful in
indicating any errors that are encountered any function. To return an
information from functions, you can use return () statement on the specified

An example of script for PHP is the following:

?php function add_numbers($var1 = 0, $var2 = 0, $var3 = 0) { $var4 = $var1 +
$var2 + $var3; return $var4; }

$sum = add_numbers(2,4,6) echo "The result of 2+4+6 is {$sum} ?

The result is:

The result of 2+4+6 is 12.

Take note that {} statement ended the course of the function. If multiple
variables are to be returned, a group of variables should be returned, not a
single variable: An example:

function maths ($input1, $input2) { $total = ($input1 + $input2); $difference =
($input1 -- $input2); $ret = array("tot"= $total, "diff"= $difference); return
$ret; }

There are also ways of accessing functions without having to type a function
name or {} syntax. This can be done in two ways: the call_user_func or the
call_user_func_array. One complex example is the following:

$one = "One"; $two = "Two"; $three = "Three"; $callback_func = "my_function";
$result = call_user_func_array($callback_func,array($one,$two,$three)); echo

These equations may show as a bunch of gibberish letters and numbers but these
symbols actually account to make a certain task easier. And that, for us, is
the most important thing.

How To Implement Credit Card Computer Programming

There are different types and applications of computer programming. Computer
programming is very essential anywhere there's a computer or a digital device.
Programs are the primary requirement before a system or device could run. And
in this digital age, they are required by almost all applications, including
web-based ones.

Credit card computer programming is one of the most vital forms of programming
these days. This is precisely what makes online banking and e-commerce
possible. With these sets of programs, people can freely buy things over the
internet. And merchants can also get their earning easily from the issuing
banks of the credit cards used to pay them.

The main requirement of credit card computer programming is security. These
programs should be created with multiple layers of security so as to protect
the interests of both the online seller and the buyer. Credit card programming
requires a series of intricate commands and test runs just to avoid the
loopholes in the programming.

Adequate security is also necessary so that identity theft and other illegal
acts are not committed over the internet. The main reason why identity theft is
rampant over the internet is because there are not sufficient security measures
that both online sellers and buyers follows. It is really the task of credit
card computer programmers to make indestructible security programs for their

Identity theft is the act of stealing one's sensitive financial information
such as credit card number, social security number, name, address, and age. All
of these are required before an online transaction could push through. But
because of the improving abilities of hackers and fraudulent individuals, they
somehow manage to find ways on how squeeze out the information from
unsuspecting victims. They don't run out of creative ways of enticing people to
freely give out the information they need.

A website that uses a faulty credit card computer programming protocol is
exposed to the risks associated with refunds, fines, and even legal costs. But
more than that, the website's customers will be very irritated with their
experience arising from the transaction with the website. Worse, they could
even suspect that the website is part of a big scam operating in the underworld
of the internet. This is where things could get nasty with legal fees arising
from suits filed by the affected consumers.

Therefore, it is very important for small and medium-scale internet business
owners to avail of credit card computer programming services only from
reputable sources. For all they know, the program that they are using are
created with a backdoor that only the programmers know about. If you can
request for a customized programming complete with documentation and a legal
contract, it is highly recommended that they avail of that.

But if that seems a little too expensive, they can definitely try one of the
many third party payment processors in operation today. This is a good
alternative to buying or creating a special software for your e-commerce
website. Examples of a third party payment processor are PayPal, Google
Checkout, FirePay, and others. These companies are offering the processing of
payments in cash, checks, and credit cards. However, these companies charge a
certain amount or a percentage of the payment received.

This deal should be just fine, because they normally assume all responsibility
when it comes to the proper handling or credit card charge requests. And for
them to do it right, they ensure their clients that they have a very complex
credit card computer programming system in place.

Where to Get Computer Programming Training

Computer programmers are professionals who are in demand these days. This is
because of the fact that everything is on the stage of being converted into
digital. Not too soon, there won't be analog systems anymore. All systems would
be created according to the digital generation.

Right now, there are different schools and institutions providing training for
computer programming. You can enroll to either offline or online schools,
depending upon your time availability. For those who recently get off from high
school and would like to pursue a career in computer programming, they can
inquire from the different schools, colleges, and universities around them.
These institutions are surely offering programming courses.

However, for those who are currently holding down a job and would just like to
learn computer programming as a hobby, they can enroll in an online school that
follows a distance education setup. They are free to catch up on their lessons
during their free time, whenever they are, provided they have a laptop with an
internet access.

Here are the different schools where you can take training courses on computer

1. Collins College Collins College is located in Arizona. It is previously
known as the Al Collins Graphic Design School. Right now, the school follows
emphasized programs for visual communications through graphic design, computer
animation, and digital video. They also offer e-commerce programming.

2. Brown College Brow College's main institution is in Minnesota. However, they
are accepting enrollees from various locations. They are implementing quality
programs in computer programming. The school employs competent faculty members
that implement them.

3. International Academy of Design and Technology This career-oriented
institution is dedicated in providing academic excellence to their students.
Computer programming is not a very easy course. But this school is one of the
few that tries to find a way to make the learning process more fun and

4. American Inter Continental University The school offers different degrees
related to business, industrial, and government career paths. And all of their
graduates have adequate computer programming units to back them up. There are
also Master's Degree and Associate's Degree programs being offered, on top of
the school's Bachelor's Degrees.

5. ITT Technical Inst If you want true-blue computer programming training, you
have to go to the authority. The ITT Tech Inst is a special educational
institution that focuses on information technology courses. The schools offers
both Bachelor's and Associate's degree.

6. Tech Skills If you want hands-on computer programming and information
technology courses, you should go to Tech Skills. They are offering different
programs related to computers and technology. Their programs include training
and certification for Oracle, Microsoft, A+, Cisco, and a whole lot more.

7. Unitek Unitek is the premier provider of certificate courses for both CISCO
and Microsoft. They are also offering training courses for these two. They can
provide assessment testing for anybody situated across the country. They have
prepared a skills test online for aspiring students who would want to join
their boot camp.

8. Kaplan University Kaplan University is an online school that offers classes
around the clock. This is one of the best schools offering programming courses
for both teens and adults. Their curriculum is focused on the individualized
career path of their students.

These are the eight different computer programming training centers you can
check out. Look for the school that is equipped to improve your skills and
abilities the most. This way, you can make your future look a lot brighter.

Learning Computer Programming Terminology

Computer programmers use a range of terminologies that make sense only to them
and to their colleagues. For other people who are not very adept with computers
and programming, those words either mean something else or don't mean anything
at all. Here's an overview of the ten most commonly used and confused computer
programming terminologies that everybody should know, explained in layman's

1. 1GL 1GL means First Generation Programming Language. It is actually a
machine level programming language that is written in one's and zero's. These
are the programs that can be understood by the computer's central processing
unit directly. There's no need to run it into a compiler or any other
programming software. There are also second, third, up to fourth generation
computer programming language.

2. Abandon ware Abandon ware are software that are not being used, supported,
or sold by its respective publisher any longer. These types of software cannot
be resold or redistributed to end-users unless otherwise given away as a

3. ActiveX ActiveX are programs using the Visual Basic programming language. It
is basically created for active contents of the software that are commonly used
by other applications that are already installed or existing on the computer.
Sometimes, it even shares the ones used by the operating system itself. ActiveX
is the one responsible for the interactive features of web-based programs.

4. Beta Version When a software, a website, or any application is tagged as a
beta release or beta version, it means that that version is its first ever
launch. It is the program that incorporates the very basic features and
requirements of the software. At that point, the software is not yet tested for
bugs. The beta version of the software is normally its test run.

5. DirectX DirectX is a program provided by Microsoft. It is a collection of
different multimedia applications and programming interfaces. It is built into
the Windows operating system. DirectX is mostly used in gaming applications.

6. Emulation Emulation is the term given to the capacity of a certain program
to imitate another device or program. There are different degrees of emulation.
Emulators are usually created for arcade game devices so it can be played on a
desktop computer.

7. Firmware Firmware refers to the software that is implanted in a device or
hardware. The firmware usually contains a set of protocols that the hardware
has to run so it would work smoothly with the other devices that it is attached

8. HTML HTML is hypertext markup language. It is the language used by web
pages. It is a programming language that has a way to describe the different
parts of the text created. It can denote text used as paragraphs, text,
headings, and lists.

9. Java Java is an object oriented programming language. Sun Microsystems
developed the software and it can be said that it resembles the C++ program.
However, it was structured to avoid the flaws of the latter. This is widely
used in the world wide web as well.

10. Linux Linux is an example of operating software in the likes of Windows and
Mac Os. But unlike these two, Linux is a free open source program. Anybody can
use the software for redistribution and modification.

These are just some of the computer programming terminologies you should know
so that the next time you come across them, you won't be guessing what they
means. Programming can be a complex task but if you learn the basic things like
terminologies, you will surely find the subject interesting.

Your Guide to Computer Programming Magazines

If you want to be updated with the new gadgets and the new technologies dealing
with computer programming, you have to subscribe to respectable industry-related
magazines. Thanks to the internet, these magazines are also available for public
viewing over the web. This means you really don't worry about missing a
subscription or so. In other cases, you don't even have to pay for
subscriptions anymore. All you have to do is to log on to your internet and
read the new entries or the new issue from the programming magazines off your
desktop or laptop computer.

Here are the different computer programming magazines you can check out online:

1. Application Development Trends This magazine provides all the information
you might need about newly released software and all the new trends in
information technology. The audience of this magazine is usually the technical
management groups of big companies and enterprises.

2. C++ Source This online programming magazine is going to be indispensable for
C++ professionals. It contains information about the C++ language, its
philosophy, and the direction it is taking in this changing world. Aside from
that, it also offers feature articles to its readers. There are also related
topics about computer programming and C++ tutorials that are perfect for the
beginners. It also has a news section that gives updates about C++.

3. Developer Network Journal If you are a .NET, ASP, COM, and ADO technology
aficionado, this is the magazine for you. Every issue is right with articles
that software developers are going to find useful. This is the primary magazine
of the Windows and Microsoft-based platforms.

4. Developer Developer is an independent magazine that is primarily created to
carry information about different topics of interest a computer programmer
needs to know. It contains features about software development, programming,
architecture, database creation, and other things.

5. Doctor Dobb's Journal Doctor Dobb's Journal or DDJ is the foremost
programming online magazines that features relevant software tips, tricks, and
tools for both aspiring and professional programmers. It is also rich in source
code, articles, book reviews, product resources, and a whole lot more.

6. Java World Java World is your optimum source of all Java-related programming
resources. Both professional and amateur Java developer can use it. It always
has fresh news, API's, tutorials, tools, feature articles, and interviews with
the experts that all deals with the Java technology.

7. SYS-CON Media SYS-CON media currently is the leader in information
technology media in the world. They specialize in AJAX development, as well as
.NET and JAVA. But they are also the authority when it comes to XML,
Coldfusion, WebLogic, and Flex.

8. MSDN Magazine If you want to get ahead with the newest technologies that
affect the Microsoft networking systems, then the MSDN magazine is what you
need. Their issues are always rich with source codes and helpful articles. They
also have an archive of back issues, should you be interested in them too.

9. Leading Edge Java This magazine could qualify as the practical Java
handbooks for Java developers. It contains tutorials, news, tools, and current
uses of the Java technology.

10. Luminary Luminary is a free newsletter published monthly. It contains
features on software management, consulting, and development.

These are the 10 most useful programming magazines you can check out over the
internet. If you want to take a glimpse of how what's new and hot in the
programming world, just check out these magazines and know yourself.

The Need For Computer Programming Language Evolution

The digital world constantly changes. New technologies are introduced and new
developments in the industry are being made known to the public. There will
always be changes in technology. And technology will constantly improve to help
create a better world.

And one of the primary movers of technology and the digital world is a computer
programming language. This is the language spoken and understood by the
computer. The computer language is machine language. Basically, what the
computer can understand and process are just a bunch of one's and zero's. It is
really upon the expertise of the programmer to create special software that
could be understood by the computer and the human user.

Computer programming software follows a certain language that computers follow.
Examples of these languages are the Assembly language, C++, FoxPro, Visual
Basic, Visual FoxPro and several others. These types of software can mediate
between the computer and the programmer. All the programmer has to do is to
input the commands he would like the computer to do. He'll write the commands
in the syntax that the computer programming language understands. The commands
are then processed and converted into the machine language the computer
processor understands. This is how the many applications and programs
downloadable from the internet are created.

Different computer programming languages can provide different levels of
functionality. Some software can give crisp graphical images. These programming
languages are usually used in making games. Games are really what make computers
half popular. And this is all because of the computer programming language
created for making games that people from all over the world love. Games are
complex individual programs that are interlinked together by the main game

Aside from computer games, programming languages allows for the development of
functional software such as word processing programs, database programs,
web-based applications, and several others. The software is made possible with
the creation of the programming languages that are most fitting to the design
and interface of the program being created. There are many times that a single
application can be created multiple language platforms.

But then again, all of these programs won't be possible without the creation of
an operating system. The operating system is the software by which a computer
system runs. Popular examples of such software are the Windows platform, Linux,
Unix, and Mac OS. There are a lot of old operating systems being used before and
the most popular of which is DOS. The operating system serves as a good median
for the computer and the processor's language. Its main job is to translate
every single program created for the operating system and allow the machine to
process them accordingly, so that people can run and use the program.

The evolution of computer programming languages is required in this
ever-changing world. It is mandatory that they have to keep up with the demands
of the current times. Before, computers are used against a black, monochrome
background. Right now, computers uses images, colors, and interactive icons.
The contrast is very striking that you can just imagine what would happened if
there were no evolution that happened.

The introduction of new computer programming languages should be a welcome
addition to the growing group of computer languages. The new features and
abilities these can be used widely in different applications are in currently
in demand.

On the Way to Learning Computer Programming In Nano

Today's digital technology gives birth to a host of programming languages. And
there are several programming languages being used in different applications
such as the web, Windows, Apple, and Unix. And right now, computer programming
in Nano is one of the newest developments.

It was believed that a Nano mechanical computer could run a million times
faster than a microprocessor-based computer. This is because that one out of
the million components of a computer is made of mechanical space. Therefore, if
a programming language is patterned on the mechanical space a computer has, it
will follow that the computer will work faster.

But then again, engineers would have to create an entirely new line of computer
systems. Computers that are more energy efficient and consumers lesser space is
the ones that would work well with a Nano computer language.

However, the Nano computer language is believed to work well with the present
day computers systems as well. The primary use of this programming language is
on graphics. With the Nano-X graphics system you could create much fancier
graphical programs. To make it work, you have to specifically create the
program with the Windows, Unix, or Macintosh interface in mind.

The Nano computer language primarily came from the nano technology. Nano
technology refers from the fields of applied science that control matter on its
molecular and atomic scale. The technology can be used in materials science,
applied physics, and of course, computer programming.

Japan is one of the pioneers of nano technology and nano programming. In fact,
they are very active in holding symposiums and conventions on both professional
nano technologies and aspiring young scientists. They are constantly looking for
new ideas and concepts surrounding the nano technology and the improvements on
the nano computer language.

Right now, the interest in learning and improving computer programming in nano
is spreading to Asian countries like Vietnam, South Korea, and in Europe,
France. The demand for different applications in nano computer programming is
increasing, causing increased users and clients base.

The nano program is basically very easy to learn and to apply. Texts can be
typed immediately into the interface. It is also quite simple to insert text
into the program with the use of some editing configuration. There is also the
nano editor software that you can use with the main program base so that
saving, cutting, pasting, and searching becomes fairly straightforward.

Currently, there are a lot of instructions software and basic instructional
kits for use of those who want to learn computer programming in nano. Since
nano is being one of the more popular languages today, this software is being
applied in almost all newer applications.

All programming professionals are challenged to learn this new technology. With
the basic knowledge you have for computer languages, learning the nano language
won't be much of a trouble. The basic principles of the program resemble the
other well-used popular programming languages. The more complex uses and
functions of the nano programming language are unique from all others. But that
is always a part of learning a whole new programming language.

Learn more about computer programming in nano by searching relevant
instructional web sites as well as from different offline sources. The nano
programming language is a good language to learn as it is expected to improve
over time.

Computer Programming Fundamentals You Should Know

Quick! Can you tell me how to prepare a bowl of cereals with milk? Too simple,
right? You can probably give me a series of no-brainer instructions that I can
perform in less than a minute. Now try telling a computer to do just that. What
began as a simple task has now become complicated. It's not just a matter of
dumping a cup of cereals in a bowl and pouring milk in. With computers, it's so
much more than that. Sounds exciting? It should be. Because that's what you'll
expect once you begin learning computer programming fundamentals.

The basics

Computer programming is a whole new world of possibilities. Believe it or not,
programming actually began in the 1200s, when simple machines were designed to
execute simple mechanical tasks. It has grown both as an art and as a science
since then, providing us with the technologies that have made many aspects of
our lives easier and faster.

Once you start learning computer programming, some of the basic stuff you'll
encounter include:

- The basic understanding of the discipline

You'll need a good background in the field in order for you to understand how
it really works. With a solid foundation built on knowing the basics of
computer programming, it will be easier to comprehend its details, including
procedures, steps and other instructions.

- Understanding the types of programming

Essentially, there are two basic types of programming, each of which has its
own uses and set of advantages and limitations. Procedural programming, while
older, is quite useful particularly because it is a much simpler way to tell a
computer what to do. It is also the heart and soul of many computer languages.
Basically, it's an input-output operation, where a user or programmer inputs a
set of instructions and a computer reacts to it by executing those
instructions. Learning procedural programming helps new programmers understand
elements such as sequence, selection and iteration.

The other type of programming is object-oriented, which is relatively newer.
This type of programming treats instructions as a set of objects, something
that is more convenient in many of the programs that are in use today. With
object-oriented programming, you'll learn an object's properties, event
handlers and methods.

You'll learn both types of programming as part of a fundamental or basic
course. These will help you understand how to design codes that are easy for a
computer to understand and effective enough to execute. Using the cereal and
milk analogy, for example, you will be able to write a code that will tell a
computer how to pour the right amount of cereal into a bowl and how much milk
to use, in that order. And if you're truly good, you can even tell the computer
what specific type of cereal and milk to use.

- Understanding the nature of the code

Another important basic knowledge you must learn in programming is
understanding codes. While their functions are generally the same -- that is, to
power a computer program -- codes differ in design and use depending on the
language. Codes are at the heart of a computer program and will be one of the
basics you will learn in programming.

- Learning problem-solving

Much of your time as a first-time computer programmer will be spent poring over
problems -- how to create a source code for a desired end result, how to fix a
bug, how to solve a glitch, how to put things together or in sequence so they
work. You'll learn how to look at a problem, break it down to its solvable
components and come up with ways to solve it.

- Thinking logically.

If you're not a fan of mathematics and logic, you'll be dismayed to know that
many of the computer programming fundamentals you'll be learning will require
you to think in numbers, figures and sequences. However, these basics are easy
to learn, provided you have the patience to follow the right steps. Once you've
trained your mind to think like this, you're well on your way to a great career
as a computer programmer.

Computer Programming Courses in New York City

Although New York City is more famous for its museums, parks, theaters and
businesses, it is also a great location for schools offering computer
programming courses. New York has always been pioneering in many ways and it
offers plenty of opportunities for highly in-demand courses related to computer
science. Here are some resources that can help you look for computer programming
courses in New York City:

New York University NYU is a recognized leader in the field of education and is
acknowledged as one of the top universities in the U.S. It is an excellent
institution for many fields of study in academia but it also has a solid
curriculum offering courses in computer programming.

To find out about the type of courses the school offers, go to their website
( and look for their current course list. The link will bring
you to their computer science department page. The course list will outline the
courses offered for a particular semester so you will have an idea of which
course to take.

Computer-Schools is a website that lists schools anywhere in the United States. 
The site lets you look for the physical locations of schools or if you prefer, you 
can search for schools offering online courses. The site lists a good number of 
computer programming schools you can check out. To look for courses, you can click 
on the links for more detailed information.

Education-Portal -- is another website that lists schools in
New York offering courses in computer programming. You can click on the link to
the schools to find more information about specific subjects and courses you
might be interested in. The site also offers information about schools offering
computer programming courses that lead to certification, perfect if you want to
build a serious career in this field.

New York Institute of Technology -- The NYIT in Old Westbury offers courses in
computer programming. You can check out their site ( or send an
e-mail to inquire about admissions requirements at

FutureKids -- FutureKids is an excellent provider of courses in computer
programming, especially for younger participants. Some of their offerings
include C/C++, HTML, XHTML, Visual Basic and Computer Graphics, among others.
If you want children to develop an early interest in a career involving
computers, this is a good place to start.

Columbia University -- Columbia University's Department of Computer Science is an
excellent source for information about computer programming courses. It also
offers courses in related fields such as software engineering, networking and
web development.

Berkeley College -- Berkeley has a New York City campus which offers some
excellent courses in computer programming. You can check out their site at or send them an e-mail at
Other courses include web design, software engineering and networking.

NetCom Information Technology -- NetCom Info has a wide range of choices for
computer programming courses. It is currently recognized as a top training
center in New York. It offers over 250 computer-related courses and about 40
certification programs. The center is a partner to several IT companies and has
key relationships with many large corporations. It is also an authorized
provider of training by companies such as Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, Linux and
Novell, among others.

NetCom is one of the best places to obtain computer programming courses in New
York City. If the type and quality of computer programming courses from this
center does not attract you, its address will -- it's located at the 7th floor
of the Empire State Building.

Training in Macromedia

The Macromedia family of software might be something that is taken for granted
by people who have used the different kinds of software in it a lot. By popping
the Macromedia disk into the CD-ROM drive, everyone, from a toddler to a
computer programmer, can do a lot of things with his or her computer. However,
for those who are interested in working with such software, computer
programming and training in Macromedia is needed.

There are many kinds of software in the Macromedia family. For instance, if you
are interested in developing computer software, and if you are looking for a way
to make a dynamic website, then you may need Adobe ColdFusion, which works like
the ASP package of Microsoft, or the programming language PHP. If you are
hoping to cut down on website design, development, and editing time, then you
may also be interested in Adobe Contribute, which allows different members of
an organization to contribute to the changes made in a website, therefore
saving time and money in hiring a single person or a team to make the changes
in the site.

If you want to do website design but want to see your results immediately
instead of plodding through oceans and oceans of script, then you may be
interested in Adobe Dreamweaver. This popular member of the Macromedia family
may not require programming skills, but it can help software programmers
understand what certain scripts do and how these scripts behave online.

For those interested in online learning solutions, there is Macromedia
Authorware, which is a programming language that is based on flowcharts.
Authorware is used for making programs that are interactive, and that can be
integrated into various types of multimedia content. Also in demand is Adobe
Director, which was originally created for making animation. Today, Adobe
Director is used as a scripting language for creating a standalone kiosk, or
CD-ROMS. It is also being used for developing online three-dimensional games.

The Macromedia family also has its own graphics editor in the person of Adobe
Fireworks. The Fireworks program is the graphics editor that is designed to
integrate with other Macromedia products. Another graphics program is the
FreeHand package, which creates vector graphics in two-dimensions, and is
designed for the use of desktop publishers.

What is undoubtedly the most popular package in the Macromedia family is the
Flash and Shockwave group. Macromedia Shockwave players are multimedia players
that were originally designed as independent packages, and that were made to
play Flash programs. Today, however, the two are integrated heavily with each
other; Flash itself is a highly powerful tool for website designers who want to
create more dynamic and attractive websites that thrive heavily on animation.
Despite the "eye candy" feel of Flash, however, most website designers stay
away from it and do their own scripting, since Flash animation cannot be picked
up by search engines, and can thus limit the amount of readable content that can
help a website be more popular.

If you are interested in training in Macromedia, you also have to be aware that
most of the packages presented are already under the Adobe umbrella. Moreover,
you may need to hone your computer programming skills well enough to be able to
run Macromedia applications and use them for your work. Not only is Macromedia
all about popping something into your CD-ROM drive, it is about computer
programming used well, in order to serve a wider variety of purposes.

BASIC: A Computer Programming Language

Computer programming has its own language, and that's just the beginning of the
software adventure. There are many different languages in computer programming,
and all of them have their own purposes. In order to understand the importance
of computer programming languages, knowing them, and tweaking them, one has to
understand the importance of computer programming. Computer programming
produces software packages, among other things, to meet our needs. We may need
software for accounting, making photos bigger or smaller, or editing our home
videos. Behind all these software packages are the computer programmers who use
their individual languages in order to create the software.

One such computer programming language is the Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code, or BASIC. BASIC is actually composed of many different kinds
of programming languages that are actually higher level than most other
languages. This BASIC family of computer programming languages was first
designed in the 1960's, and was originally made for non-science people to gain
better access to computers. During that time, using a computer required that a
person write customized software, a task that only mathematicians and
scientists were equipped to do. The BASIC language was therefore a bridge for
people of other professions to take advantage of the power of computers.

When the 1970's came, the BASIC language, whether in its original form or a
variant of it, spread onto microcomputers; and by the 1980's, even home
computers could be run in BASIC. Today, BASIC remains popular, as it serves as
the basis for many of the more modern programming languages that have been
developed in the wake of advanced operating systems and the Internet.

When it was originally conceived, BASIC was meant for beginners: it was a
language that people could use easily, whether or not they were educated in
mathematics and the sciences. The language also had to be a general purpose
one, in that it had to serve many different needs, and not only those that
mathematicians and scientists required. The root language of BASIC also had to
allow for advanced features to be plugged on as experts grew more and more
adept in it, and as the language found further use in many other fields. BASIC
was also meant to be interactive, and was designed to show error messages that
were clear and friendly; that is, these error messages had to completely
explain what the problem was, which would hopefully allow the user to fix it
faster and easier.

When it was first released, moreover, BASIC was free of charge, which allowed
the language to spread much faster. Once the language spread much faster, it
was also easy to modify it and correct errors. BASIC was also distributed to a
few high schools in order to promote it faster. Thanks to this widespread use
of the language, BASIC was soon implemented on several microcomputers, and by
several software manufacturers.

Despite its success, BASIC has had its dissenters. For instance, some
programmers find that its scripts do not show proper programming practices, and
the language itself is too slow, or sometimes even too simple. Despite all
these, however, BASIC has continued to thrive, succeed, and evolve, and has
thus become a good tool to introduce beginner programmers to the concept of
coding and computer programming.

These are only a few facts about the BASIC language. For more information on
BASIC, read and do your own research through several key pages online, or using
computer programming books.

Are Functions Core Concepts in Computer Programming?

Computer programming is a phrase that is bandied about quite heavily, but only
few people actually understand its implications. The process of computer
programming itself is difficult to understand for people who are not in the
computer science field. Computer programming makes use of a code or a language:
this language can be placed into several lines of code that can be translated to
mean different things once they are processed as a program. For instance, the
software that you use to calculate your taxes, or the software that you employ
to make your simple web page are all products of skilful computer programming.
Behind these software programs are scripts and codes, and these scripts and
codes can mean different things.

For many different programming languages, a function can be important and can
therefore be a key concept to learn when someone is interested in software and
computer programming. A function can also be termed as a subroutine, procedure,
or sub-query. How is a function important? For instance, if a company or
institution has a library of many different programs, these programs can
therefore consist of millions upon millions of lines of a source code. In the
interests of time and space, you would like to keep from duplicating a certain
source code in many different places.

Why is duplication so undesirable? If a source code is duplicated in many
different places, it is being needlessly copied, and it can spell Hell for the
programmer and troubleshooter when things go wrong down the line. If the source
code is actually erroneous, the programmer or troubleshooter will have to
correct the code in all the different places that it appears. If the source
code has to be updated or improved in order to make the program either run
faster or perform more operations, then the source code has to be modified,
improved, and updated in all the places that it appears. And if the source code
has to be removed and replaced with a new source code, then it has to be erased
and replaced with the new code in every single place that it appears.

This is indeed time-consuming, and it can lead to more errors because of all
the human intervention that has to be done. On the other hand, if there are
functions that are built to handle all the different programs, then only one or
a few changes need to be made should there be errors, or should the source code
have to be updated, modified, improved, or changed. You can think of the
function as an umbrella: it covers all of many different programs beneath it,
so that you do not have to cover each program individually.

Having a single source code serving as the function is also advantageous when
you have to introduce a new program that still makes use of that same source
code. Because the source code is already available as an overall function or
sub-program, you do not need to add the source code to the new program. You
only need to find a way for the new program to interact with the source code

These are only a few facts that you need to know about functions in computer
programming. For more information, read up on the latest computer programs, how
different programs can interact with each other using some umbrella or overall
scripts, and how different programs can be improved when using functions.

The Future of Computer Programming

When it comes to the world of computer programming, it would be safe to say
that the future is bright. And why is that so? Gone are the days when only the
rich and powerful have the tools to educate themselves. Nowadays, a single
household possesses at least one computer. There are a lot of brilliant minds
out there who are constantly on their toes to bring about the latest
developments in computer programming.

To make their dream a reality, it is necessary to begin where all computer
programmers begin -- at grade school. Computer programming is now being
introduced to the youngest minds. Educational materials that are targeting
languages in programming and also development tools are now being introduced in
most schools' curriculums.

But this is still an ongoing vision. Somewhere in the near future, computer
programming (not just computer usage) will be just another ordinary subject
such as writing, reading or arithmetic. A study shows that this vision is
slowly unfolding as teenagers are responding positively to programming
exercises and are even able to control several virtual worlds in just a few

Mass computer programming literacy is a work in progress. When even the most
simple citizen is able to explain the designs of software with ease, then
creativity will abound and so with productivity. But what is computer
programming in the future? Is it more on art or engineering? Or both?

One renowned computer architect named Gordon Morrison states that computer
programming is recently in a form of art. When this is so, it means that the
current knowledge in programming is disorganized and changeable. He proposes
further that in changing programming into engineering (which is a more precise
form) then the future of programming will become more stable.

Perhaps, one good way to predict the future of programming is by looking at the
available jobs for computer programmers these days. Consider these career
options: a single system programmer is able to install and maintain
mainframe ops systems, management software for databases, and also networks for
communications. They can also become compilers or utility programmers.

Another good way to foretell what is in store for computer programming is to
look at the television and some science fiction films that are being produced
lately. In the past, the TV series called The New Adventures of Wonder Woman
showed talking computers and robots which were causes of awe. Today, those are
not impossibilities.

The use of hardware has progressed tremendously over the past years and
software development is tailing behind. Software processes are still on the
if-and-then phase and users are wondering whether this will really change.
Although there are predictions that programming languages would soon be on its
fifth generation (where the recent languages would become obsolete), still,
this visualization still hasn't pushed through. Which leads others to ask, has
software development reached its peak? Will there be no more developments? Is
this as far as it could go?

Sure, there are modernizations here and there when it comes to new languages
but they remain at a certain phase. It doesn't go a notch higher. Perhaps,
software would be the technological limit that would cap computer programming
advancement. But only perhaps.

There are always minds out there that constantly grind to provide the latest in
programming innovation. We can only watch and predict for now. And yes, we could
only wonder.

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