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Criminology

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What is the Definition of Criminology?

When thinking about what criminology is, an individual needs to first consider
what aspects and fields are affected by the criminal element. Some of these
fields will also either perpetuate or deter crime, depending on how they are
used. Anthropology, sociology, law, research positions and others all tie into
criminology. Criminology could then be defined as how any of these many
multitudes of society's development and creation are able to affect how
individuals interact, specifically when it comes to the degenerate element.
Using science to approach the evolution of crime within an area or timeframe
allows individuals to learn how an environment may respond to and otherwise
affect crime. Certain things can be analyzed in order to come to a conclusion
about crime and the criminal element within a particular area, such as any
hereditary elements that may have had a factor or psychological issues that
would have instigated the crime. In addition, many criminologists are also
interested in studying how the punishment of criminals affects the likelihood
of the same crimes being performed.

When people's actions or movements deviate from the normal status of things in
a way which is excessively harmful or dangerous to themselves or others,
criminologists may become involved in the situation. By studying both crime and
the law, an academic person can come up with possible motivations for an
individual's actions. These theoretical explanations are often helpful when
profiling a person who has yet to be caught by the police, as well as when
statistics are needed in order to illustrate a trend or issue for a community.
However, it is not just crimes that are studied and analyzed by the
criminologist. In addition, they also look at the criminal justice system on a
whole in order to make sure that it is functioning in a sufficient manner that
benefits the lives of citizens.

The definition of criminology is broad in order to encompass all of the
different fields that fall under the term. However, by being more specific in
the type of criminology that is being investigated, an individual is able to
focus more on the individuals cornerstones of the different types of
criminology that exist. For example, psychological criminology was a part of
criminology for a long time but did not begin to be looked at on its own until
the 20th century. This field looks at the abnormalities and mental diseases
that may feed criminal behaviors. It is specialized in the way that proponents
of this type of criminology believe that the personality of the individual is
the breeding ground for the levels and types of crime that the individual will
be capable of committing. Emotions and behavior patterns are often able to
remain relatively stable and predictable regardless of what type of environment
the individual is placed into, which helps academics to formulate the idea that
this is what defines a person. Criminologists are able to look at crime and
other related fields from different perspectives in order to analyze the cause
and effect relationship of the crime, the individual and the environment in
which they are immersed.

What are the Basics of Critical Criminology?

While criminology is the scientific study of the interactions that inherently
occur between criminals and the public or the criminal elements and society,
critical criminology is slightly different. This concept of criminology has a
solid foundation in the belief that a singular crime is considered to be
criminal due to the historical and social beliefs at the time. For example, one
famous illustration of this is that homosexuality was considered to be illegal
for individuals in the United Kingdom. This type of interaction between
individuals was declared legal for men over 21, but this was not until 1967.
Since there is nothing within the act that changed over the years, the only
thing that changed was the judicial government at the time and what they
believed was morally right or wrong. Overall, there is nothing deemed
inherently wrong about the act itself. One of the main questions that
individuals interested in critical criminology need to ask themselves whether
or not an act is a crime because it is wrong or whether it is merely a crime
because someone with the elected power decided to make it so.

Within critical criminology, there are a number of theories that have been
formed. Conflict theories were never very popular within the United States, in
part due to the fact that during the late 1970's, when critical criminology was
more popular, there were many criminology departments that were closed due to
political reasons. Other critical criminologists were concerned that conflict
theories did not properly address the different issues that faced society.
Critics of conflict theories that exist in criminology maintain that these
individuals ignored some important differences in the level of criminal
activities between socialist and capitalist societies. Japan and Switzerland
are two countries that are socialist in nature, but they have extremely low
rates of crime in their countries, as compared to capitalist societies like the
United States of America.

In feminist theories, individuals attempt to give another dimension to
criminology, in the form of gender. The supporters of these theories are for
the most part trying to bring a new form of awareness to the way crime is
viewed. Instead of focusing on criminals who are male performing crimes against
other males, it is argued that criminologists need to investigate more how the
female affects this preconceived approach to crime. Many parties concerned with
this type of critical approach to criminology also try to educate other female
criminologists. This is important to this group of individuals because too many
times, female criminologists will adopt the male perspective and perpetuate the
same cycle of applying male concepts on females in the world of crime.

While there are other theories that are applicable in the field of criminology,
such as postmodern and peacemaking theories, the conflict and feminist theories
are the most prevalent ones within the world of criminology at large. By
looking at the way that different theories can be applied to criminology and
the different areas that fall under the term, individuals are able to learn
more about the society in which they live. Another point that can be explored
would be how the criminal relates to the society in which the crime is
committed.

Overview of Criminology

When investigators are examining and studying crime from a scientific
perspective, this is referred to as criminology. This includes the parallels
between crime and different forms of phenomenon such as the development of
particular types of laws. Criminology also works to identify how to address the
criminal behavior of criminals and how to eventually control the criminal
element. Drawing on psychological and sociological research, criminologists are
able to look at the different ways in which a criminal's environment will affect
them. It can also help when it comes to profiling criminals in order to
understand them and have a better chance of catching a criminal that is on the
loose. By using criminology, individuals are able to not only profile a
potential perpetrator, but they are also able to take a more intellectual look
at how crime is perpetuated in our world and what steps can be taken in order
to limit crime.

There are different schools of thought when it comes to how individuals
approach the concept of criminology. Some of the most popular schools include
those that are known as the Classical school, the Positivist school and the
Chicago school. These schools were developed over a period of time, ranging
from the middle of the 19th century and continuing well into the 20th century
with the Chicago school of thought. One of the main factors that differentiate
the schools of thought would be how the criminologists view environment in the
life of the criminal. Some believe that the criminals have to take
responsibility for their actions regardless of what is happening in the
environment at the time, in line with the Classical movement, while others
believe that criminals may be predisposed to crime, as is proposed by the
Positivists. The Chicago school of thought poses the possibility that criminals
are able to learn deviant behaviors from others and that when social
organizations, such as schools and neighborhoods, are not organized they will
not be able to control the criminal element that occurs. By identifying how an
individual feels that crime is either created or continued, it can provide the
basis for the school of thought that the individual falls under when it comes
to criminology.

Criminology experts look at crime in a variety of different manners. By
defining the distinctions between the different types of crimes, it is easier
to come up with theories as to how and why the crime took place. One type of
crime would be those that go against core values. These seemingly natural laws
are ones that are common among many different cultures, separated by time and
space. Natural laws are those that are considered to be able to protect
individuals and their property from abuse by others. Some of the more
controversial laws include statutes which are put into place by legal
institutions. The relationship between state and citizen is explored in these
laws, which is what causes the conflict in some instances. As a result of
looking at the different construction foundations behind laws, it is possible
to understand the many different ways in which crimes are categorized.
Organized crime, state crime, blue or white collar crimes and organized crime
are some of the most popular types of crime that exist.

Criminology Views on Crime Exposed

Criminology is a theoretical science that is used in order to try to explain
not only the relationship between the criminal and society, but also the
relation of judiciary committee in the social setting and the criminal element
in the social setting as well. By looking at different pieces of the scientific
puzzle, it is possible for many people to come up with theories to explain how
society functions with crime, in response to it and as a means to perpetuate
the crimes. Through these specific theories, it is possible for individuals to
understand some different stances on how crime is created in a society and how
a society may influence an individual's decision to commit a particular crime.
In some cases, it is also used in order to determine how time and the general
implications on moral and immoral behavior in a society. This can be one of the
biggest considerations that are taken when a government is thinking about making
an amendment to their laws.

For example, homosexuality was considered, for a long time, to be illegal
within the United Kingdom, including England. However, what ended up happening
in 1967 was that a law was passed that allowed individuals to act in homosexual
ways if they chose to, but only if the individual was over the age of 21. This
helps to expose that there was likely nothing wrong with the specific act, but
the people of the time that viewed the act. This is how criminology approaches
crime. They look at the specific crime, and then look to determine how society
or laws may have affected the crime at that period of time. As a result,
criminologists are able to use these crimes and examples in order to understand
more fully how individuals react in a society when it comes to laws and
regulations. Criminology does not study crimes and specific laws. Rather, they
simply study the reactions between individuals that are exposed to this type of
situation. This helps them to be able to accurately understand how society
functions. Crime seems to be an inevitable part of society. If we can one day
understand why this is so, we stand a better chance of being able to one day
eliminate crime from different societies.

Criminology is a unique field because it does not try to eliminate crime
conclusively right now. They understand that first it is necessary to research
and understand how society and crime are interrelated in different societies.
Once this is clearly understood, we can begin to eliminate the criminal
elements within a society. Because there are so many different societies, and
crime does not relate the same way in all of them, it is very important to make
sure that blanket theories are not created in order to try to attack crime on
all points within the world. Rather, there are different rules and structures
that play within different areas and may affect crime. Criminology views crime
as something that cannot be avoided at the current time, but perhaps could be
at some point when we understand more about interactions between the community
and the individual.

Exploring Criminology Theory

When it comes to the science of exploring how crime and society interacts,
there are number of different theories that have been developed with the
attempt to explain what causes such reactions in individuals. Over time, there
have been many different theories that have been established and in most cases
these theories have been developed as a reaction to the social or judicial
challenges or changes that have been created. Criminology theory is important.
While there are many theories that cannot be proven beyond a shadow of a doubt
in every single society and cultural setting, it is very important for
individuals to keep looking and keep developing different theories. By
understanding past theories that have failed or not be able to be applied
successfully to different crime settings, it is more likely that individuals
will be able to work up to theories that can be applied in these different
settings.

Criminology is a very broad science. It covers many different types of crimes
and cultures or societies in which the crimes take place. Another area that is
covered by the scientific study would be the laws that are created by society
in response to the various crimes that have been committed in the area. While
criminology itself as a science was not created and defined as a term until the
end half of the 1800's, there were many theories that were almost
instantaneously created in order to promote the science. Some of the theories
were based around the individual and their role in crimes, but others were more
interested by taking the role of society into consideration as the cause for
certain crimes in different areas. Over time, these theories were elaborated on
and re-defined in order to make sense in the time period which would be applying
the theory to their studies of the social setting in a set time frame.

It is very important for individuals to understand that criminology is a
theoretical science. In effect, this means that criminology will likely not be
able to have a set definition of cause and effect when it comes to crime and
the society in which the criminal is brought up. At the very most, we have
these theories that are constantly being improved upon in order to try to
understand crime in a specific society for a specific period of time. Some of
the most popular theories that have come forth so far include the conflict
theories, in which the individual criminal alone is held responsible for their
reactions, as well as the rational choice theory in which it is maintained that
the criminal is able to come up with the pros and cons of an action or crime
before they perform the action, and that they ultimately decide that there are
more pros than cons when it comes to that criminal decision. Certain theories
cannot be applied across the board. For example, these theories may be applied
to both females and males, but the feminist theories in relation to criminology
will maintain that this approach cannot be used and that females need their own
theories when it comes to criminology and what motivates women to commit crimes.

How to Understand Criminology Theories

When it comes to understanding the theories behind connections between crimes
and individuals or the community, many people may not realize that the beliefs
that differentiate the theories are not as complex as they may seem at first. 
By simplifying the core of the theories, individuals are able to more properly 
understand the different theories that can help individuals to identify the 
theory that they most identify with when considering the interactions of crime 
and society. Once the foundation of the theories are understood, it is much 
easier to build upon the theory by including some of the more complex ideas 
supported by the theory. A number of theories exist, and many are being created 
daily on the part of individuals. However, there are a few theories that are 
more common and widely held as beliefs than other theories may be.

There are social structure theories, or those theories that the status and
construction of the social setting will define the likelihood and amount of
crime in the area. Individuals that are exposed to poverty and other signs of
social deterioration are believed to be more prone to crimes and acts of
violence. There are other specific social theories that believe crime is
perpetuated by the inequality that exists within the social structure that is
established. When people are unable to achieve that which society expects of
them, such as the "American Dream", these individuals turn to crime to try to
realize this dream. Individual theories exist in order to explain criminology
within a society. Trait theories are those based on scientific knowledge of the
human body and how chemicals and genetic material will determine or alter how an
individual responds to stimuli. Aggressive behavior and antisocial tendencies
are just some of the many personality traits of individuals that are involved
in crime, and the links to genetics, hormones and other biological factors are
currently being studied.

Some theories stop looking at what encourages an individual to become corrupt,
and instead focus on the effects of society to explain how and why some people
are able to lead productive and admirable lives. These theories are commonly
referred to as control or social control theories. In an example, it is
illustrated that an individual that has a greater degree of self control will
be able to wait patiently while attaining their dream or goal instead of using
possibly degenerate means in order to gain immediate access to their desire.
Symbolic interaction as a theory examines the relationship of the powerful,
ruling class and those that are less powerful. By integrating themselves into
the belief that they were less powerful, youths that were looked down on played
up to the role designated to them. It represents a self-fulfilling prophecy of
sorts since the youths are taking the more powerful group at their word and
transferring the definition onto themselves as criminals.

Of the last main theories that surround criminology, rational choice theory
maintains that criminals weigh the pros and cons of an outcome just like anyone
else. When the costs and benefits are dissected, the criminal will make a
decision. They may also consider the time and place for the crime as well in
order to find the situation with the lowest crime risk.

Successfully Answering Criminology Research Questions

In order to succeed at getting a degree in Criminology from almost any
reputable college or graduate program, it will be necessary at one point or
another that the students write research papers from the perspectives of
different fields that relate to Criminology. In some instances, the professors
of the classes will enable the students to come up with a thesis of their own.
This allows more flexibility on the part of the student, since they are able to
define for themselves what they want to discuss and what they want to leave out
of their research. As long as the research that is left out is not critical to
the thesis, this is typically allowed. However, in many cases the professors
will not give the students this option. Instead, the professor will supply the
students with a question, or a list of questions from which the student can
choose the one that they would most like to turn into a term or research paper.
The difference between these two scenarios is that the individual student needs
to be sure that when they are doing a paper that has been assigned to them that
they fully answer the research question posed to them. If this is not
accomplished, it is very likely that the student will not be able to get as
competitive of a grade as they would otherwise have been entitled to. This is
why it is so important to fully tackle the research question.

When it comes to successfully answering posed questions with the greatest
amount of success, students need to do their research. For many people, it is
beneficial to use the internet as a source of information. Students need to be
careful with this approach when they are trying to answer research questions
for a grade. There are many different websites on the internet, and not all of
them are reputable. Instead, students need to get their information for other
places, or at least in addition to information found on the internet.

There are a number of different journals that are reputable and legitimate.
Easily found in many libraries, the Canadian Journal of Criminology and the
British Journal of Criminology are two of the most successful available
resources. Both feature articles and information that comes from all different
areas of the world and different academics. Many schools will also have
Criminology databases that can be accessed by students and this too provides a
valuable tool during the research phase of a students Criminology paper. The
database includes journals, articles and periodicals that are popular within
the world of Criminology. Searching is very important for students to
accomplish properly and it is important that they not give up before the
research is completed. Not only can this affect their grade, but it will not
accurately show the capabilities of the students. In order to successfully
answer research questions that are posed to students by professors and
teachers, students need to come up with a well defined thesis that can be
supported by different theories and ideas that are or have been expressed
within the Criminology arena. Many professors are looking for new and expansive
ideas, so this does not mean that the student needs to recycle material. Rather,
they need to draw on the work of individuals that have come before them and use
the knowledge of the past to help promote their new ideas and concepts.

Who is Qualified to Receive a Criminology Online Degree

On the Internet, there are a number of schools that will offer courses and
educational material as a basis for individuals to receive various online
degrees. One of the many degrees that can be attained by individuals wishing to
study on the internet would include Criminology. There are a number of different
career paths that are open to individuals with a Criminology degree. Because of
this, it is a very popular and eagerly sought degree by individuals that would
like to go back to school in order to earn a degree, but who may feel that they
do not have the time or financial means to dedicate to a full time pursuit of
the degree. Convenience and efficiency are offered to the individual would-be
student and they are able to graduate after meeting the requirements of their
chosen online schooling establishment. There are some criteria that individuals
will need to meet before they are able to receive a valid degree in Criminology
from an online institution.

First of all, individuals will only qualify if they are prepared to do the work
that is mandated by the school. It is still important for the student to be
willing and able to learn about the different studies and courses that will be
taught. Without committing to this responsibility, an individual will not be
able to meet the standards that are set for them and they will likely lose the
money that they have invested in the venture. When a person is prepared for the
dedication that they need to have in order to graduate with a Criminology online
degree, they will be able to attend the school and succeed in the courses that
they will be required to take in order to graduate. In many cases, this will
also include the ability to purchase the necessary course work packets, books
and journals. Just like in typical and traditional classroom settings, reading
and response work will need to be completed in order to make sure that the
individual understands and comprehends the course work that is being taught.
One of the supplements of classroom time is work outside the classroom.
Traditionally, this will include the reading or certain texts or articles,
which will sometimes need to be purchased by the individual students.

Those who qualify to receive a Criminology online degree will also need to be
financially able to afford the courses. For students that are not able to
individually pay for their education, there are often different financial aid
offices at schools, even online. By utilizing the help of the financial aid
department, a student can typically work out a payment plan with the school.
This allows the school to make the money that they need to have from the
students in order to pay the salaries of professors and other educational
needs, and the student is able to begin their journey to graduation. A
Criminology degree that is received online is respectable, but it is the amount
of time that the individual puts into the learning process that will determine
how much they will personally get out of the experience.

Exploring Criminology Lesson Plans

In order for anyone to get a degree in Criminology, it is important that they
pass a series of tests that have been standardized and mandated by the specific
college which the student attends or in which the student partakes. In order to
ensure that men and women struggling to receive a criminology degree know the
important basics of criminology and the relationship between crime and the
public, it is important for the students to learn the same basic elements of
the field. For example, there are three widely held beliefs that define
different causes of crime and the criminal. These are known as the schools of
thought for Criminology. The lesson plan at any college would then likely, if
not undoubtedly, include an exploration of these different schools of thought
in order to examine how people viewed the field over time. It is also important
to note the differences that take place over time. Many people may not know it,
but more schools of thought opened up after it was revealed that there might be
some kind of link between an individual and their chemical or genetic makeup.
Even hormones have been speculated to make a difference in this field.

By looking at the different schools of thought, an individual can understand
how time and scientific advances lead to a more individual understanding of how
crime is produced. Many theories also arose in order to try to help explain what
affected an individual and enticed them to commit a crime, including how society
in general may have contributed to this calling. Lombroso believed that a
criminal is born with the particular defect, and that a man or woman that
possessed the chemical and biological makeup of a criminal will have no choice
but to succumb to that lifestyle. Supporters believe that this is the nature of
the criminal, and no amount of nurturing can change the outcome. Initially,
crime was expected, by individuals such as Cohen and Felson, to be a choice.
These people believe that criminals could choose to make a different decision
but due to indifference or lack of knowledge, these individuals do not want to
choose morality over the instant gratification that is rewarded by crime. These
different theories would test and be attributed to the different criminologists,
all done while students are engaged in a criminology class, and preparing for
the life that awaits them after graduation.

A look at the criminal mind and the rational mind would also likely help
individuals to establish their own personal beliefs about criminology and the
reactions of society and deviance. It is important to allow individuals to
examine these things individually in order to encourage students taking part in
a lesson plan for the material to be able to form their own opinion, without it
being the suggestion of someone else. In this way, it can be suggested that
bias does not affect the lives of the individuals that are studying
criminology, or influence the way in which they think about or relate to crime.

How to Notice the Difference between Criminology and Psychology

Psychology is the scientific study of an individual's behaviors and thoughts as
a basis for their personality and reactionary processes. There are many reasons
that a person may be studied by a psychologist. Sometimes, the people who are
being studied are simply trying to find ways to move past a particular feeling
or longing that they cannot seem to let go of on their own. By using psychology
and investing in the help that they can receive from a psychologist, a person
can be shown the different ways in which they approach situations and learn to
react differently and redefine their approaches to problems or stressors. In
learning different habits as reaction processes, a person can learn to overcome
different problems or feelings that they may have not been able to do at an
earlier time, before being studied in the psychology field. Psychologists tend
to amass the information that they are able to gather from different subjects
in order to learn about how the human mind operates in a general sense. The
information can be used also to notice the similarities and differences that
exist between the individual mind and assessment of life.

While Criminology is also the study of an individual's behavior and thought
process, there is a specific outcome that is being sought by the criminologist.
The individual's actions and thoughts are being investigated in order to learn
how that individual is able to either overcome or succumb to the different
elements of crime that exist within an environment. There are many different
thoughts surrounding how a criminal comes to be. Some believe a criminal is
born with the natural instinct to be deviant while others believe that the
criminal element is nurtured within an individual by specific environmental
aspects. Criminologists are often in the pursuit of why and how a person is
able to act out in a way that is either hurtful to themselves or others. They
use their knowledge in order to provide a safe and comforting environment for
the general public.

Psychological criminology is a specific branch of criminology that combines
these two perspectives. By using psychology as the only basis for the invention
of the individual, criminologists are able to generate a profile of the
perpetrator. In looking at an individual's actions or behavior patterns,
psychological criminologists are able to see into the personality of the
individual that is being tracked or studied. This can help criminologists to
analyze the pattern in order to cut the perpetrator off before they are able to
perform their next criminal act, if the individual is still on the loose, or it
can help the criminologist to understand how the crime came to be, in effect
determining the motive for the crime. However, psychological criminologists are
typically not the ones who will help criminals to move beyond their behavioral
or mental deviants. Instead, they generally use their knowledge in order to
help others understand what the criminal did and why, effectively helping to
get answers out of the criminal that may be useful or necessary.

By analyzing the mind, both criminologists and psychologists are attempting to
gain insight into the individual. While in some instances this is being done
for the benefit of the individual, in other instances this is being done in
order to keep the public at large safe from the individual.

How to Use Criminology and Forensic Science to Effectively Solve Crimes

There are a number of ways in which an individual is able to couple criminology
and the practices of forensic science in order to catch a criminal.
In some cases, the individual is profiled through criminology and matched up to
the forensic evidence left at the scene of the crime. However, there are a
number of other ways in which the two genres are used together in order to
bring about justice within the penal system. Criminology is the study of how
science and environment affects the criminal mind, as well as the interaction
between individuals or communities and the criminal element. Forensic science
is the area of study in which individuals are able to transform one small piece
of information into something of substance. In many cases, forensic scientists
are able to use pieces of forensic evidence and what they learn from this piece
in order to effectively illustrate either a link between and individual and the
crime or an alibi for the individual wrongly accused of a crime.

A few major career focus areas for forensic scientists exist. Criminology areas
of expertise range as well, although they are all trained by learning similar
material in school. Forensic science fields are especially diverse and offer
unique benefits within each one. Together, the members of the forensic science
and criminology teams are able to work together in order to piece together
their separate information to come up with one solution near completion, based
on the facts they have all gathered. For example, a police officer working as a
criminology expert may be able to psychologically profile a suspect, but they
would require the help of a forensic scientist in order to match carpet fibers
from the crime scene to carpet fibers in the suspect's home or vehicle. By
linking together all the separate notions that each individual is able to
learn, a complete or near complete timeline of the suspect and crime can be
composed. With enough evidence, this can be taken before a court and the trial
will begin against the alleged suspect.

Some of the categories that exist for individuals involved in forensic work
include medical examiners that inspect corpses, crime laboratory analysts that
are able to look at the chemical and biological makeup of pieces of evidence,
crime scene examiners, and those that assist in a technical or academic
capacity. Through the combination of these different branches, coupled with the
work of criminologists, crimes can be pieced together in a more logical and
straightforward way, in order to illustrate to juries and judges the events of
the crime and suspected individual. This is especially important because in
serious cases the jury has to be in agreement that there is no reasonable doubt
on the part of the individual defendant's role in the crime. In other cases, the
defense will use the forensic evidence in order to clear their defendant of the
charge or charges against them. By using virtually irrefutable evidence of a
scientific nature, the jury and the judge are able to clearly see how crimes
are or are not linked to the suspect.

Where to Use the Course "Text Criminology: Explaining Crime and Context, 5th
Edition"

In undergraduate school, it is very important for individuals to be able to
understand the material that they need to learn in order to graduate. This is
why it is so critical for many teachers and professors to make sure that the
text books they assign to their classes are able to understand the material
that is written inside of the book. Because criminology is a theoretical
science, it can be difficult to understand in all instances since there are no
set or guaranteed facts, only theories that can be followed by the individual.
As a result, it can be challenging for some students to succinctly understand
the many different theories that are and have been used by individuals that
illustrate criminology in a particular time or place. The course text
Criminology Explaining Crime and Context 5th edition is one of the best books
that will explain these theories and the contexts in which they have been used
over time to the student. This is important because many career opportunities
after college will require the individual to understand different key elements
of the theories and approaches that are used when it comes to criminology. By
learning this information prior to graduating, students are able to have a
better chance of being successful in the field of criminology after graduation.

This is a book that is used in many instances to be the core text of the
course. It is very effective and covers a lot of the necessary material that
individual interested in studying criminology will need to learn. Some
professors will implement this course text as a book to be used to help
introduce individuals to the different concepts and theories that relate to
criminology. Others will wait a little longer to introduce the students to
criminology in order to ensure that the students are properly prepared for what
they will have to learn and cover when it comes to being able to graduate with
enough information. Most courses will need a specific amount of time in order
to properly cover the necessary information within the course text book.

However, in the class room is not the only place where individuals can benefit
from reading this material. There are many individuals that have an outside
interest in the world of criminology. If a person is not interested in going to
school in order to get a degree in criminology, but they still have a desire to
know more about the science, then it can be very helpful for them to get this
book in order to learn many of the similar things that they would learn if they
had been going to classes on the matter. By allowing individuals to access
pertinent information in a manner that is straightforward, more people are able
to understand and learn about the complex theoretical science known as
criminology. Like most text books in colleges, the text reader is fairly
expensive, but the material inside the book is very beneficial and advantageous
to the individual that is using it as a learning device, for personal or
professional gain.




Examining Careers in Criminology

Criminology may sound, initially, like a very concentrated field; however, the
truth is that there are a number of different elements that play into the genre
of criminology. As a result, there are a number of different careers that an
individual will be able to consider when they investigate the life and options
of one who works in the field of criminology. For all the many job
opportunities and career paths that exist for those who are interested in the
field, the field can be slightly difficult to break into for a person. This is
due in part to the fact that the inquiring person needs to be well-rounded when
it comes to education, but also because the person does typically need a good
amount of schooling in order to be considered as a qualified candidate for
these types of jobs.

One of the most obvious careers that will typically pop into the minds of
people who are thinking about crimes would be the profession of a police
officer. This is a very well respected field and does not require as much
training and schooling as some other fields might. Applicants will need to be
tested in a number of ways prior to being offered a position, and in some more
urban and populated areas there is a more desperate need for qualified police
officers. As a result, there is slightly more competition than there may be in
a small town that is looking to hire police officers.

A drug policy advisor needs to do many things depending on their field of
concentration. Some of these advisors need to be able to look at trends and
crimes over a period of time, and then weigh this information against the rest
of the information that the individual has needed to research. In some cases,
this can include the number of deaths as a result of the drug and the number of
violent crimes that have taken place in an area involving the drug as an
instigator in the crime. By looking at this information, and also at how much
annually is spent on the drug for different demographics, a drug policy advisor
can make some suggestions regarding the medication or drug. Sometimes there are
no negative repercussions as a result of the drug, but in other cases policies
need to be put in place in order to place restrictions for the good of the
public and the welfare of citizens.

Other productive careers also include crime intelligence analysts, advocates on
behalf of the consumer, private crime prevention leaders, and individuals that
are working corrections. These many careers require different and specific
levels of schooling before the individual candidate can be seen as qualified
for the job. Cost of education varies depending on where an individual attends
school in order to receive their education and how long they are required to
their university.

Careers in Criminology are not just open within the United States for
individuals, but are actually located in different areas around the world.
Different laws are established by different governments, so not all individuals
qualified to work in the field of Criminology within the United States could do
so in other areas of the world. Still, individuals that are qualified in
different areas can broaden their search options and range by looking at
careers outside their geographic location.

Why Consult the Canadian Journal of Criminology

Undergraduates are required to take a number of different courses during their
schooling. Before the students can graduate with a degree in Criminology,
certain criteria needs to be met. While the specific criteria can vary from
school to school, there are some minimum requirements that the students need to
meet regardless of where the go to school in order to receive their degree. Many
people may end up being surprised by the number of different fields in which the
Criminology major must spend time, but this is all part of the learning process
that will eventually allow the individual to become well rounded in many areas,
perfectly suited for the many roles in which criminologists function by
combining insights about different categories in order to piece together a
puzzle. Criminal elements are unique a fair amount of the time, and it is
through the schooling process involving the individual in fields that extend
past comfortable boundaries in which the student will be able to learn the
most. In addition to taking classes about law, government, politics, sociology,
anthropology and psychiatry, many students will also need to take classes in
chemistry or some other science.

Over the course of their studies, students will come to realize that there are
a number of papers that they will need to write and turn in to their
professors. This will require them to come up with a compelling thesis and have
enough evidence to support the thesis. As a method of support, many professors
encourage or demand the use of outside sources. For over a decade, the internet
has been a very popular choice as a resource for material to use when students
have papers due. In college and graduate programs, however, many professors
will allow some internet sources, but not all. There are a number of journals
that an individual can use in order to expertly back up their thesis. The
Canadian Journal of Criminology is one such effective journal. It is widely
available in most libraries due to the fact that it is a particularly useful
source for articles and documents outlining the theories, concerns and solution
ideas of the authors that contribute to the journal. There are a number of
articles that focus on Canada and the crime element in the specific county, but
there are some more far reaching articles as well. Looking at different
environments and results helps individuals to look at the scenarios objectively
in order to come up with ideas as to why crime exists in certain geographical
locations and what contributes to the criminal element within the individual
mind.

By enabling many people to contribute to the Canadian Journal of Criminology,
the publishers are able to enjoy their journal being used as a reference source
much more. It expands the environment to which the journal is describing,
effective expanding their target audience. By using such journals as the
Canadian Journal of Criminology, students can be assured that they are using a
reputable source as a supplier of information for their term papers.
Unfortunately in too many cases, sources on the internet do not have the same
kind of reputable backing as the Canadian Journal of Criminology has.

Exploring the British Journal of Criminology

There are a number of studies and journals that are involved in the discussion
of criminology. One of the most widely read and well reputed journals that
study and examine criminology would be the British Journal of Criminology.
Quality pieces and articles that are contributed from sources from around the
world are gathered in issues of the British Journal of Criminology. It is very
easy for individuals, either from a scholarly or academic perspective or even
those from a researcher's perspective, to use the British Journal of
Criminology as a reference source because of the reputation that the Journal
has. However, it does not just expose the work of different academics, but also
publishes articles that peers write and have reviewed, as well as a book review
segment within the Journal.

The British Journal of Criminology has its publishing basis within the United
Kingdom, but its shipment range is much more expansive and in fact spans the
entire globe. Regardless of their place of residency in the world, individuals
can subscribe to the British Journal of Criminology. Even if an individual does
not wish to subscribe to the British Journal of Criminology, it is also fairly
easy to locate the Journal at libraries. Many back issues are supported in the
libraries because of the notoriety that it receives in the literary world as
well as in the world of the criminologist. Regardless of whether or not an
individual is able or willing to secure a subscription to the British Journal
of Criminology, the many different articles that are featured can have a
profound effect on the individuals that read them. There are a number of
different topics that are explored with each issue, and this allows the reader
to learn about various aspects of the human mind when it is exposed to crime,
and crime's effect on the community. Some of the perspectives that the articles
deal with include criminology's relationship with sociology, anthropology, law,
social fields and social work, and economics. By exploring the different ways
in which these varying and equally important aspects play out in crime and
within the criminal mind, individuals are able to broaden the ways in which
they relate to and experience crime and the individual criminal, at least on an
intellectual level.

Many instances exist in which an individual would want to reference the
different thoughts and feelings expressed within the British Journal of
Criminology. Sometimes a student will need to cite different sources in order
to back up a particular thesis or type of thought which can be improved by some
of the articles that have been published in the Journal. In other instances, the
thoughts and ideas of others can be built upon in order to further define an
individual's belief of crime and the criminal element. By establishing a theory
with supporting elements, it is possible for an individual that was published in
the journal to be contacted and asked to help in a criminal case. In many
instances, this is done on the part of the author by elaborating on the
conclusions that they have come to in their article or journal pieces.

What is the American Society of Criminology?

The American Society of Criminology is one of the best references and sources
of information regardless of where an individual lives and what country is
maintained as their place of residence. Contrary to the implication in the name
of the organization, the American Society of Criminology is actually an
international organization that is open to many people. Annually, the
organization hosts a general meeting, and topics are discussed that seem
appropriate in which everyone can take part. The themes are generally vague,
but still give way to important topics. Recently, the meeting has had the theme
of "Criminology, Justice and Public Policy in the 21st Century". Since this type
of conversation topic does not limit itself geographically, anyone is free to
express their concerns or issues when it comes to these matters, as they feel
the public will be affected by them in this coming century.

In addition to offering annual talks for professors, legal minded individuals
and other academics interested in the various aspects of criminology, the law
and sociological effects as a result of crime, the American Society of
Criminology is also geared towards helping these people. There are employment
opportunities at the meetings as well, and on their website the American
Society of Criminology actively updates their position and employment posting
boards. As a result, individuals that are going to be graduating from college
with a Criminology degree can find on their website a wealth of information
pertaining not only to available jobs and markets, but also a resource in the
form of networking with likeminded individuals.

Members of the American Society of Criminology are able to enjoy different
criminology journals and a newsletter. The reading materials are helpful for
all interested parties because they transmit the information that is changing
and being expanded on in the legal and criminology arenas, and will often
feature segments on various countries around the world. There are some
specialized regiments within the Society, and members sometimes interact with
each other on these specialized levels. This is again helpful for students
looking to break into a specific niche after graduating and those who are
particularly interested in specific areas of criminology. One of the main
functions of the Society is to educate people and investigate the many ways in
which crime, the criminal element and society are related and dependent upon
one another in various manners. They are open to all willing individuals and
encourage interested parties to join or investigate their organization at any
point in time.

Within the Society there is an Executive Board. This is made up of the
President, the President Elect, the Immediate past President, as well as the
Vice President and the Vice President Elect. Those positions are elected. There
are also appointed officers, and these positions are made up of the executive
secretary, as well as the treasurer and the editor for one of the Criminology
Journals, known as Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Six Executive
Counselors are also added to the board. These are the individuals that run the
society on the whole; those who form policies, determine the specifics of the
Annual Meeting, and ratify the Society's budget.

What is Criminology?

When people look into criminology, they may initially be surprised by how
expansive the field is. Anyone that is at all associated with the scientific
study of crime, the relationship between the criminal and his or her
environment, and society's reaction to crime would have some sort of placement
within the scene of Criminology. In some instances, criminologists are
researchers that are trying to find the common links between deviant behavior
and the environment, in order to try to pinpoint what it is that causes or
perpetuates crime.

There are currently a number of different theories that attempt to explain,
through the process of science, what it is that causes a crime to take place.
These theories began to emerge in earnest in the middle of the 1800's. Over the
course of the next 200 or so years, new theories began to spring up and
eventually they began to involve genetics, hormones and biological makeup.
Previously, theories of criminology rested heavily on society and the
environment's effect on the individual as a source to either push an individual
into crime or away from crime.

There are three distinct schools of thought when it comes to criminology. One
of the first schools of thought, the Classical school believes that utilitarian
philosophy is the supporting notion of criminology. They argue that individuals
have free will and can decide for themselves what is right and what is wrong.
The hedonistic, or self-indulgent, side of the body must be balanced against
the rational of the individual. When the hedonistic side wins, crime may ensue.
Rational is the side of the individual that would consider the penalty of the
crime and, if the punishment is severe enough, is believed to be the piece of
the individual that would keep them from crime by looking at the costs.
Positivists are those who believe that the factors that contribute to the
criminal's propensity to go against the law do not rest within their own
control. Rather, elements such as society or the person's chemical makeup do.

These are things that are considered to be outside the control of the
individual, but are still things that may play what Positivists claim as the
biggest part of the responsibility when a criminal has committed a crime. In
the Chicago school of thought, individuals believe that criminals are a result
of the disorganized environments from which they come. Later, this definition
was extended to include the belief that older generations taught younger
generations about the role of crime. It is then fair to say that these
individuals believe that crime is a social occurrence only where the social
makeup of the area is broken down and unequal.

Crime is often considered to be a blemish when it comes to the society of an
area. It causes people to fear when they should not have to. Criminologists
are, in their own way, attempting to determine what causes a crime or
instigates that type of behavior in a person in order to limit the amount of
crime that takes place.

ReThinking Criminology Jock Young

Jock Young is a very important theorist when it comes to criminology. He has
been able to contribute in a variety of different ways when it comes to how we
are able to define crime as a society and what the sociological elements may be
when it comes to the criminal element in a region. Many of his papers have been
published in different books and journals. From there, his work has been able
to influence the thinking and direction of other criminologists' theories and
ideas. For the most part, his work has always been about pushing forward with
ideas and theories in order to determine the roots of crime and how to
eliminate the criminal element from societies.

This is important because it would lead to the general well-being of a
particular area, while individuals would be able to relax and not worry or
stress about the level of crime or violence in the area. Criminology, and Jock
Young, revolves around the study of how crime is created and how it interacts
with society. So far, we have not been able to determine a direct cause of
crime. In order to make sure that we do, criminology constantly needs to be
re-addressed and thought about from different angles in order to ensure that we
are one day able to come to the correct and proper conclusions that would allow
our societies to operate in a more effective and efficient manner, free of
violent crime.

Different perspectives need to be used when viewing criminology in order to
keep the approached to the science fresh and always evolving. In many cases,
there are a number of approaches that need to be redefined in order to make
them more applicable to different societies. It is also important that
individuals who study criminology do not neglect cultural or societal
differences between cultures and the crime that takes place in the area that is
being studied.

While one theory may work in a specific geographical area, there are different
cultural and societal aspects that may make the theory null and void in another
geographic location, even if the crimes are similar in both areas. Criminology
needs to be rethought when looking at different societies in order to make sure
that there are the proper distinctions placed on the culture of the crime scene.
Some other factors that may be important when looking at the ways in which the
criminal element and the culture or society interacts would be in regards to
gender, age and the type of crime that is being committed. These may seem like
variables in the science of studying crime and society, but there are many
reasons to believe that these differences may formulate completely different
outcomes as a result.

In addition, there are some people that believe it would be more applicable to
look at how a person maintains a non-deviant lifestyle as opposed to how a
person might become a criminal. These are just some of the ways in which it can
help to readdress criminology and crime in order to come to different
conclusions about how we interact and function within the world when it comes
to morals and non-deviant living.

A Look at Recent Paradigms in Criminology

In the Oxford Handbook of Criminology, there is a chapter in the book that was
written by Jock Young. This chapter is entitled "Recent Paradigms in
Criminology". This piece of work is used by many people in order to take a
critical look at criminology and the ways in which crime is affected by society
and other influences. There is a particular influence that is placed on the
society in which a crime takes place. In some areas the structure and
organization which supports crime and the criminals, while in other areas there
is more of an emphasis that is placed on the disorganization of society as a
major factor in the perpetuation of crime in the area. In order to limit crime,
it is important that individuals within a society put forth the effort to
understand what it is that causes crime and the release of the criminal element
into the culture or society.

Jock Young's chapter is a very important piece of the Oxford Handbook of
Criminology. In many ways the entire books is an fundamental theory
compellation for the United Kingdom, but Young's chapter of recent paradigms in
criminology helps readers and academics understand the new ways in which crime
has changed or evolved over time. In addition, there are a number of ways in
which differences in society and culture have shaped the ways in which
individuals view the criminal elements in their society and the types of crimes
that may take place within the region.

Many things may help to bring forth a deviant behavior from a particular
individual, but many people are interested in learning how these elements may
incite one person to commit a crime, while another person may experience those
same elements and have no inclination to act out with deviant behavior against
the society in which they are located.

In addition, it can be very helpful and effective for individuals to look at
different individualizing factors. Some of these factors include the gender of
a person, their age and their social class. These things may not initially seem
to have an effect on criminology and the crimes that take place in an area, but
the science of criminology has roots that incorporate these differences in
important ways. Some people believe that there are a number of instances in
which the gender of a person is ignored when it comes to crimes and criminology.

There are a number of instances in which the male perspective in applied to all
accounts of crime, regardless of whether or not the crime was committed by a
male or a female criminal. Because of this, it is important for us to step back
and look at the aspects to consider in order to accurately formulate theories in
the field of criminology that are better and more complete. Jock Young is able
to show many different ways in which this can be done by looking at new
paradigms in Criminology that can be used by individuals who are interested in
developing new theories and ideas.

Examining the Lyrics to RaeKwon Criminology

There are many instances of violence that are portrayed to an almost grandiose
manner in rap songs, and the RaeKwon Criminology lyrics are no different. Made
up of several segments of lyrics, this rap song takes place almost as if on
stage as a discussion between two people. It opens up with a conversation
between two individuals in just this manner, before it goes into the song
itself. In the opening dialogue, two men are arguing and in the middle of a
verbal debate that sounds as if it is about to turn violent and physical, with
the ending line being "You wanna go to war?" This makes it very clear what the
intentions of the men are.

They want to be aggressive and violent in the face of the person that they
believe is holding them back or taking advantage of them. There are names that
are said which would help to call attention to the racial tension that may
exist between the two men, which is explored in more detail throughout the
other segments of the song.

In the first stanza of the song, the individual that is talking seems to be
building himself up and calling attention to his ability to outmaneuver those
who would try to capture him or stop him from succeeding in whatever it is that
he wants to do. "Then I react, like a convict, and start killin" is a line that
is particularly indicative of the nature of the individual. They are adopting
the mentality of that which they have experienced through their formidable
years.

The rest of the dialogue continues to illustrate the points of pride for the
speaker which he finds in himself, as he also tries to play off any sense of
responsibility or morality that may have otherwise existed in the situation had
his position been filled by someone else who was not as "sparkin and bustin" as
the narrator is. Because of his abilities, he considers himself to be
successful and hardcore to some degree.

The next portion of the song is a response. In speaking to the first person,
this new speaker is trying to maintain that he has not only more ability than
the first speaker, but also that he has more street credibility, which is
almost more important. He wants to toast with the first speaker, but he also
calls attention to the fact that he has shot many people and watched them
bleed. Nowhere in his discussion of these events does he seem to be apologetic
for what he has done, and indeed he seems to react as if the people who went
through this deserved this kind of treatment. Instead of listening to these
lyrics and perpetuating this type of violence between individuals who are
trying to be more "tough" or "street" than anyone else, as a society
individuals need to look at what it is that supports these kinds of thoughts
and desires. By understanding what it is that individuals are trying to
accomplish through this violence, perhaps we can come up with different ways to
achieve the same feelings of worthiness and respect.

Exploring the Basics of Postmodern Criminology

One of the most current theories to be designed within the science of
criminology would be those that adhere to the postmodern perspective. When it
comes to postmodern criminology, one of the most basic beliefs and
supposititious is that not only is crime the result of the social interactions
in an area, which is the foundation of most conflict theories in criminology,
but also that the social context will play a part on the outcome of a situation
as well. This extends on the conflict theories that were created, which suggest
that the criminal is responsible for his or her own actions, and that the
deviant behavior of the individual is what caused them to go against the social
norms that have been established by the ruling government. By expanding upon
theories that have already been created, it is possible for individuals to
evolve the beliefs more and hopefully get closer to the truth of identifying
how a criminal is created and what effects this has on individuals and the
society at large.

Postmodern criminology supporters will look at a crime or criminal action and
will go on to ask a very important question. Was the crime a result of the
environment that exists in the society where the crime was committed? By
identifying whether or not the culture was responsible for the crime or not, it
is possible to learn more concretely how different instances in an individual's
life will affect them. In some cases, individuals are forced to go against the
normal responses to particular situations. There are many times in which an
individual may have to kill another person, and while this type of violence is
rarely enjoyed, it can be a last resort for certain people. A good example of
this having occurred would be to look at an instance in which a policeman had
to shoot a suspect in order to save the lives of many innocent people in the
immediate area. The individual policeman cannot be said to be inherently
criminal or deviant, because if the shooting is justified than he had no other
reaction. Even if another reaction could have occurred, it may not have been as
successful, beneficial or helpful to the individuals that were also involved in
the situation. In making the decision to stop the shooter in the illustrated
situation, the policeman stepped beyond the ordinarily imposed social norms
that would define murder. Instead, he is more likely to be seen as providing a
service to the individuals that were being threatened in the situation.

By building and rebuilding social contexts and responses, as a whole we can
work together to create a better society. Within a better society, there will
be less criminal elements to distract the public. This is because the responses
that we develop will be more likely to benefit others in addition to ourselves
in an honest form. When the society is more stable and healthy the criminal
element will not be as prevalent, which is one of the important building blocks
of postmodern criminology theories.

Experiencing the Parallels between Victimology and Criminology

All too often, society is inclined to allow criminals to receive leniency for
their crimes as a result of the environment in which a person may have existed.
Even if the criminal was not influenced by their environment to commit the
crime, the criminal is liable to adopt the persona of the victim in order to
gain sympathy. This is often successful because when more well-off individuals
are in the presence of those that are considered to be less fortunate, they may
feel guilt. In many cases, this guilt is not necessary. However, if an
individual begins to express their opinion that by adopting the role of a
victim the criminal is dodging the responsibility of the crime, they will
likely be criticized greatly for their thoughts.

Victimology, even if it is sincere, is often a way in which individuals justify
a crime to themselves and to others. For example, one of the most commonly held
beliefs within the United States of America is that of the great American
dream, in which everyone is happy, living in a nice house and the parents have
stable occupations making a comfortable living for their families. This does
not at all reflect the reality of inner city slums and poor rural areas. By
clinging to the belief that no matter what, even without trying in some cases,
individuals deserve to experience the American dream, they may be inclined to
take what they feel they deserve rather than try to work for it. Some people
will rationalize that they have no means to work for this dream, and they had
no choice but to act out in the way that they did. However, this blaming of
society does not change the reality of the situations. By allowing one person
to get away with a crime because of a victim mentality would be a slap in the
face to the people that do work to succeed.

Herein lays the most important parallel between victimology and Criminology.
While it is simple to blame society for one's troubles, this does not begin to
solve the problem. Individuals from all sides need to think about how the
society may impact the role of the criminal and to take steps in order to
change things. This way, when an individual tries to adopt a victim mentality,
we can state as a society that there were other options. By outlining the
different options in such a setting, even more people can be exposed to the
ways in which society is working to stabilize equality between different
categories of individuals and work to reduce crime as a product of environment
or surroundings. Criminology works to examine how society and the criminal
interact, and this needs to be looked at under extreme scrutiny in order to
find the causes of problems and work towards successful solutions.

There are also instances in which those who are perceived to be in a seat of
power will become corrupt. It is important to look at this too. Individuals may
attempt to adopt a victim role in this scene as well in order to appeal to the
sympathetic public. Aside from sociopaths, individuals have moral standards
that will tell them what is wrong and what is right. For anyone to adopt the
role of the victim in order to gain sympathy is a ploy against the considerate
nature of others. When it comes to crime, the people that should be playing the
role of the victim are those who were victimized during the act of the crime.
For individuals that live, they are many times much stronger than people may
have believed them to be, and it is nauseating that the criminal will then try
to adopt a role that the person they violated will not even take on in the
court room.

How to come Up with Successful Thesis Ideas Papers on Criminology

Throughout the course of the pursuit of criminology degrees, there are many
times during which students will be required to write a thesis paper in their
criminology classes, and they will not be given a list of options from their
professors. When faced with this challenge, some students may not be aware of
how to approach the paper with a concrete and effective thesis idea. If this
happens, it can be helpful to approach the theoretical study of criminology
from a new perspective and see if a thesis can be created in this manner. By
outlining the theories that build themselves within the structure of
criminology an individual can more clearly see how the theories and the science
are connected. In the end, this will help many people to understand the
specifics of successful and intelligent thesis ideas.

Even within certain categories and theories there are different segments of
individuals. For example, within the feminist theorists that involve
criminology there are radical feminists and libertarian feminists. Some
effective thesis ideas for criminology could focus on either breaking down the
structural supports of these theories, or in support of the theories. By
exploring the flaws and strengths of theories, we can come closer to accurately
understanding the relationship between crime and the individual. As we get
closer to this point, it will be possible to eventually try to change
criminology from being a theoretical science to a more concrete form of science
in relation to individuals and the societies in which they live.

Another way in which an individual can come up with ideas for their criminology
papers would be to examine the history of criminology and how it evolved rapidly
once it was created. However, the term itself was not put in place until the
1800's, which could cause some to speculate as to why this was the case. There
are some instances in which a student can explore the reality of whether or not
these beginning criminology experts were really the individuals to herald in
this concept to the world. History is full of examples throughout which
criminology aspects and ideas may be implied.

Criminology papers, unlike papers for some other classes that the student may
need to write, will likely not be able to scientifically prove a point. This is
why it is so important for the student to support their thesis and idea. Even if
an idea is farfetched, if there is compelling evidence to support the ideas then
it can be considered to be a success. Support is the most important aspect of
papers that attempt to dissect or discuss criminology. Without material to back
up one's own ideas when it comes to theories and criminology beliefs, then there
is nothing to support what the individual is saying and it cannot be believed
since there is no proof of the idea. However, with a substantial amount of
information that would help to support the thesis of the paper it will be taken
much more seriously when it is read by critics and supporters as well.

Exploring the Many Available Jobs in Criminology

With a criminology degree, there are a number of career paths available for the
individual. Individuals that have just graduated are likely to get involved in
these particular careers. These are some of the more flexible career fields
when it comes to individuals who are educated by whom may not have the
experience that some other employment offices may desire. In addition, these
jobs are interesting and allow the individual to learn and explore aspects that
they were not able to while in school. The hands on experience will help the
graduate in many ways later on in their careers as well as at the time of their
employment. One of these exciting careers is in the field of crime intelligence
analysis. This is a very interesting field for individuals that are looking to
have experience when it comes to deciphering the foundation of crimes.

Some other creative careers when it comes to criminology employment
opportunities would go on to include consumer advocates, who work with laws and
regulations that would either benefit or protect the average consumer from the
manufacturers or corporations, environment protection analysts, who help to
formulate different regulations when it comes to the environment and the
protection that it can receive from the public and community members at large,
and a regional crime prevention coordinator, who would be in charge of coming
up with different methods in which to protect the residents in a region of the
state. This is a position that would also help to come up with ways in which
the community crime prevention members would be organized and structured in
order to provide a more effective and efficient crime task force within the
region. As a result, this career is very important when it comes to preventing
crime within the region by understanding some of the underlying pressures and
structures of the criminal element within the society or culture.

One of the most obvious career opportunities that exists for individuals that
graduate with a criminology degree would be that of those who go on to become
police officers. This can extend into other fields of the police department
including detectives and criminal psychologists on the payroll of the police
department. In this area, many people are able to come together in order to
look at how society and crime interacts on an intimate level.

The crimes that take place are not looked at and analyzed in order to come up
with ways to prevent the crime in the area, rather the police force is able to
catch the criminals and hopefully take them out of the society in which they
were raised or committing the crimes. In some cases, the police officers are
able to work and interact with the regional crime coordinator, in order to
create a more solidified union of crime prevention within the region, city or
town. There are some other cases in which the police officers will interact
with community correction officers, either because they are employed in jails
where the criminals are required to serve their time or as parole or probation
officers who are able to readjust the criminal to the society in which they
live or to make sure that they are not violating any rules or restrictions that
have been placed on them.

Exploring the History of Criminology

To many people interested in the roots and origin of Criminology, Lombroso is
considered to be the father of the science, meaning that he explored it and
examined it from many angles in order to expose it. It was first used by a law
professor in Italy, Raffaele Garofalo, who actually used the Italian term for
the word, criminologia. A French anthropologist also used the term around the
same time as Garofalo, who referred to the term as criminology. There are some
who believe that it is possible that the study of bumps on an individual's
skull, referred to as Phrenology, is a better mark of representation when it
comes to the scientific origins of the term. Lombroso is considered to be the
father of criminology because of the many advances that he attempted to make in
the field. If not for him, criminology might not be as developed as it is today.

Over time, many different theories were composed as to what caused criminal
behavior. These theories have their roots in biology, psychology, and society,
to name a few. Over time, by using these foundations for new theories,
different schools of thought began to emerge. Through these different schools
of thought, the theoretical science of the criminal element could be
rationalized. Individuals often debate in order to attempt to define the reason
for crime, so that it may then be eliminated by solving the problem of what
causes crime. By identifying and responding to the motivator for crime and
deviant behavior, more effective measures of social control could be put into
action. Currently, we are able to take care of the symptoms of crime. For
example, we have police officers who catch criminals. When found guilty by a
panel of their own peers, the criminal will go to jail. That takes the criminal
out of society. However, there are new criminals emerging every day. We have
learned to treat the symptoms, the individual criminals, but we have not yet
been able to determine the instigating factor in these developments.

Throughout the history of criminology, this is the main goal of the science.
Since it is a theoretical science, all of the theories that correspond to the
topic cannot immediately be proven as accurate or inaccurate, merely
theoretical. However, the continuous effort of individuals to idealize the
workings of the individual and society have been transformed and re-defined
since the beginning use of the term. If the history of criminology shows us
anything, it is that the human nature to establish right from wrong and the
differences between individuals distinguishing the difference is virtually a
timeless theme, at least since its birth. By continuously researching and
documenting the variables and changes within society and crime, people who are
interested in criminology can line up the theories with the established facts.
After this is done, it is possible to sit down and analyze the coinciding
factors in order to determine the best course of action when it comes to
evolving society so as to limit crime and intolerance as much as possible.





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