Surviving the Imperfect Storm: Tips for Emergency Preparations If you live in a storm-prone area, you should be used by now on what to do, where to go and what to have to be prepared for bad weather. However, if you're not used to getting pummeled by high winds and hard rain, you probably don't have an idea how best to face a storm situation. For starters, storms do not just come without a warning. Weather stations monitor the atmosphere day in and day out. If a storm is possible, they will issue two types of warnings: Storm watch -- is issued when there is a possible storm in your area. You probably will be experiencing a dark, cloudy sky, an unusually windy day and some rain. The storm may or may not come, but this is the time to keep tuned to your local radio for news and updates. Storm warning -- is issued when a storm is headed toward your area. Try to stay indoors as much as possible. Or if residents are advised to evacuate to a safer place, go as early as you can. Don't wait until the last minute to leave your house. By that time, the streets could be flooded and traffic is bad. You don't want to be caught in your car in bad weather. Blizzard -- usually occurs in winter and means heavy snow, strong winds and wind chill. When a warning is issued, avoid traveling as much as possible and stay indoors. There is no use exposing yourself outdoors where you could get trapped in traffic or in locations where you will be difficult to reach or worse, find. For all our technology, no one can stop a storm from coming. The only way to survive it is to be prepared to face the emergency. Things don't always go bad during storms, but weather is unpredictable and anything can happen. To help you prepare for a storm emergency, here are a few tips: Dress up. Wear enough clothes to keep yourself warm. Heat may not be available in your house so get extra coats and blankets to maintain your body temperature sufficiently. Have your mittens, gloves, hats, socks and boots ready as well. Have food ready. Emergency provisions are a must during storm emergencies. Make sure you stock on no-cook food, canned food, some candy and other non-perishable items. And don't forget can openers, scissors or utensils. If the storm gets too bad and the streets are flooded, you will have a difficulty going out to the grocery shops. Besides, stores might be closed. Keep bottles of water handy. Clean water may be hard to come by during really bad conditions and the worst thing you can do is suffer from dehydration because you were not prepared. Keep a supply of at least one gallon for every person per day that will last for 3 to 4 days. Fill the tub. You'll need more water for washing and flushing the toilets. When the power is out, your water pump won't operate, so best fill your bath tub, water containers and pails with water. If you have small children in the house, take precautions by covering deep containers and keeping children away from the bathroom unless necessary. Emergency kit Have a medical or first kit ready and make sure it's freshly-stocked. It should contain disinfectants, gauzes, cotton balls, Q-tips, medicated plasters and necessary medicines. It's also a good idea to have another kit in your car. If anyone in your family is under special medication, make sure you have enough supplies to last until after the storm is over and drug stores are open. Lights off Expect power outages during storm emergencies. You won't have any electricity, so stock on candles, flashlights and emergency lights. Have extra fresh batteries and matches in case you run out. If you can't turn on the TV, have a battery-powered radio tuned in to a station that covers your area. Media will monitor the storm and will keep you updated. You might need hot water during the period when power is not yet available, so keep a small tank of gas around just in case. Your outdoor gas grill will do nicely. Get an alternate shelter. If you think your house will suffer considerably, it's a good idea to consider an alternate shelter. It could be an evacuation center or another house or building that is safer. Make sure you have enough gas in your tank in case you need to get out of the house and move someplace. Keep to a higher ground where you have better chances of being safe and dry. Emergency Preparedness For a Hurricane There is nothing anyone can do when nature decides to leash out its fury. There is no way to stop it so people should brace for the worse and seek shelter. In order to minimize the loss of life, most towns and cities have created emergency plans. Sirens are placed in strategic locations to announce a major evacuation; the emergency broadcast system is in place in the event that power and electricity has been cut off as well as stockpiles of food, water and medicine. Those who live in the coastal communities will usually be battered by hurricanes. This happens between the months of June until November in the Atlantic and from May to November in the northern Pacific Ocean. When this is first spotted on radar, the forecaster will already inform the public about it. There is no need yet to panic here since the weather conditions may change in the next few hours but if there are no improvements, it is time to activate emergency procedures. The hurricane may pack winds exceeding more than a 100 miles per hour that can make cars, pieces of metal or wood cause severe damage to the home. Households can board up the windows and doors of the house with hurricane shutters and plywood. People will rush to the supermarket to stock up on food, water and other essentials. These include candles, batteries for the radio and the flashlight as well as fuel for the generator. All of these things are necessary especially water to prevent dehydration so every possible container must be used including the bathtub. The most important which must never be forgotten is a medical kit. This should have bandages and some antibiotics to be able to treat anyone who is ill or injured until the person can be brought out to a medical facility for better treatment. Should the incoming hurricane be classified as a category 4 or 5, residents are advised to evacuate and seek higher ground. It will be a good idea to travel light so only a few pieces of clothing, food and water must be brought into the vehicle. The citizens are also advised to drive slowly and avoid panicking since this could cause accidents on the road. The hurricane will pass within a few hours. This is the only time that people will be able to go out or return to see how much damage was done. It is only after assessing the damage that towns and cities can say whether the emergency preparedness procedures that were sent in place were effective or not. One indication that it works is if no casualties are reported. This is because a house or even a building can be repaired but the life of an individual can never be replaced. The people who live in the household can rehearse the emergency preparedness plan to see if some improvements need to be made. This is because time is off the essence in order to be safe in this type of crisis. Emergency preparedness is key to ensure the survival of everyone present. People who live through this annually know what to do but those who are moving into the community should learn fast to be able to survive the onslaught of the hurricane. Prepare for the worst hurricane in the best way possible Believe it or not, the coastline of the United states is regularly battered by hurricanes -- about five on the average -- every 3 years. The fact of the matter is that hurricanes do bring lots of winds -- some as strong as a hundred miles every hour. Along with hurricanes also come water surges that reach to twenty feet in height. Such cyclones are extremely dangerous, therefore preparing for their onslaught especially during the months between June up until November, is a smart and practical thing to do. The following are tips and advice you could do to be able to best prepare for any worst that could happen when hurricanes come. Be aware and beware Understand and know that every hurricane is a lot different, preparing for the possible worst is usually the best option as it makes one prepare and be pro active. Make a list and check it twice Try to make up a list of all the items found in your backyard or front yard which you think you need to bring in the house when a hurricane hits. The items which could be included in this list are the tools for the yard or lawn furniture. Trim it As much as possible, try to keep shrubbery and trees trimmed. Doing so prevents any unnecessary entanglements brought about by tree branches or the like. Drain it As much as possible, try to ensure that all the gutters as well as drains in your area are appropriately cleared. This is so that further flooding is prevented especially during the bouts of long and heavy rainfall that usually accompany strong hurricanes. Use shutters specifically designed for hurricanes Using shutters permanently for the doors and windows is a much safer and better alternative that simply taping all the glass as doing the latter does not in any way prevent the glass' breakage. You could also protect the window from the outside using plywood or the shutters. Plan for an evacuation As much as possible, develop a plan for evacuation. Try to communicate with your emergency local management chapter or office of the Red Cross. They may be able to provide you with the route for evacuation as well as shelters that are nearby. Prepare blankets Have ready sleeping bags and blankets just in case there is a need for you to have to rush to a shelter. Think about your pets too Know in advance what you could do to take care of your pets. A lot of animals were abandoned during the onslaught of hurricane Katrina. Gather needed emergency supplies As much as possible, prepare supplies beforehand. Included in this list of supplies should be flashlights, batteries, a radio, water and food, first aid kits, can opener. An additional tip is by turning the temperature of your fridge to the highest setting. The reason for this is when the power goes off, the cool air of your fridge will get to stay a lot longer, thereby preserving your food a lot longer. Elevate your home and furniture It is also a good idea to elevate your house especially if hurricane and flooding is a common thing in your area. All in all, preparing for the worst is always the best course available. It could save you precious time and energy as well as possibly save your life as well as those of your loved ones. Tips For Preparing Your Family For Fire Emergencies Hundreds of people die every year because of fire-related incidents, especially during the Christmas season. Thus, it is very important for us to be prepared for such emergencies. Each member of our family should know what to do in case of fire. More importantly, all of us need to know what to do to prevent fire. Plan Ahead One of the most important things that parents forget to teach their children is to prepare for emergencies, such as fire. Even at a young age, children should already be taught how to prevent fire and what to do in case there is fire. Fire drills have often been conducted in buildings and schools to help prepare building occupants and students in case of fire, so why can't you have a fire drill in your home? The first step is to check your house for possible fire exits. See if the windows and doors in your house are big and tall enough to be used as possible fire exits. Make a floor plan for each room, ensuring that there are at least two ways to get out of the room to escape fire. In making the floor plan, you need to include crucial details, such as stairs, windows and hallways. After devising a floor plan, you should meet your children and discuss your fire escape plan. You should also make sure that your family has devised a way of warning other members of fire, such as bells, door tapping, etc. It would be best if each bedroom of your house has a flash light and a bell. Lastly, select a safe place outside the house where everyone will go after escaping the fire. Preparing your family for fire emergencies It is wise to act out your evacuation plan with the whole family. Teach your children how to stay close to the ground while escaping and is possible, let them memorize the way. Sometimes, the smoke caused by fire would make it very difficult to see the way, so it would really be wise if you and children know the way by heart. You and your children should also know that during fire, you should feel the door first before opening it. You should not open the door if it is hot. Instead, find another way you could escape your room or house. If the clothes of your children or any family member catch fire, tell them to fall to the ground and roll. This will help extinguish the fire. Make your house safe from fire Make sure that emergency numbers are placed near telephones. Such numbers should always be accessible and visible so that you can call authorities immediately when a fire breaks out. You should also ensure that smoke detectors are installed in key places in your house. Once smoke detectors are installed, you should check their batteries once in a while. Usually, the batteries of smoke detectors should be changed yearly. Place fire extinguishers in key locations. If your house has several floors, ensure that there is at least one fire extinguisher per floor. It would really be best if smoking is prohibited inside the house because many incidences of fire are caused by improperly discarded cigarettes. However, if smoking cannot be helped, make sure that nobody smokes in the bed. Furthermore, let everyone know how to properly discard cigarette butts. No matter how many times you have taught your children that matches and lighters are dangerous, some will still play with them. Thus, it is advisable to keep all lighters and matches in places that your children cannot access. If possible, put them in locked drawers or cabinets. Tips on What You Should Do During Earthquake Emergencies Scientists have not yet really determined a way to predict an earthquake. That is why, when a strong earthquake strikes, a lot of people gets injured, or even killed, and properties gets damaged. The only thing we can do, if we live in an area near fault lines, is to be prepared everyday for such eventualities. Here are the things you should do to prepare for an earthquake: Prepare an emergency kit You will never know what will happen after a quake, thus, you should always have an emergency kit for everyone in your household. Each kit must contain at least one gallon of water, food supply for at least three days (you should select non-perishable food), and first aid kit. You should ensure that you regularly change the food and water in your emergency kit. The food and water in your kit will be of little use if they are already not fit to eat or drink. Instead of saving your life, such might even exacerbate your situation. Know the mains of your utilities Earthquake might cause fire from gas leaks and electricity. Thus, it is important that you know where the main switches of your utilities are so that you can turn them off when needed. Inspect your house for cracks and fissures You must regularly check the condition of your house to ensure that it can withstand even a strong earthquake. Be sure to have the cracks on your walls, chimney and even door frames fixed. If you live in an apartment, report cracks and fissures to your landlord immediately, so that he or she can do something about the situation. Have an evacuation plan You and your family must make an emergency plan for disasters, such as fire, floods, and earthquakes. Each member of the family should know what to do in case of such incidents. You will be able to protect your family more if you prepare them earlier. Panic and confusion can often lead to injuries accidents. Here are the things you should do during an earthquake: The first thing you and your family should do is to stay away from objects that might fall off. Stay away from book cases, cabinets, and hanging objects, such as chandeliers, or ceiling fan. During an earthquake, it is wiser that you stay put, particularly under sturdy tables or door frames. Do not run around or even attempt to get out of the house. There are more dangerous things outside your house that could injure you, such as lampposts and cars. Make sure that the emergency kit that you prepared is easily accessible. If possible, place it in a location where you and your family will run into during a quake. Stay away from the kitchen. One of the most dangerous places in the house during an earthquake is the kitchen because there are many pots and pans hanging around and drawers full of knives and cutlery. Furthermore, there is a danger of a gas leak in the kitchen that might cause fire. What to do after the earthquake Do not attempt to light a match or a candle immediately after the quake; you are not sure if there are gas leaks. Lighting up a match might ignite a fire, so be very careful. If you can, shut off the main gas valve if you smell gas. If you suspect a gas leak, open the windows and evacuate your house immediately. You should also call the gas company once you are away from the gas leak. Do not try to call, especially using your mobile phone, near gas leaks. There will sure be aftershocks after an earthquake, so do not let your guard down even if your house is intact and all the members of your family are well. Be sure to check the news for information about the quake and other important updates. What Do You Do When A Volcano Erupts Tomorrow? Volcanic eruptions are one of the powerful disasters nature can bring. Volcanic eruptions are catastrophic enough that it can wipe out several towns in a few hours. They can also cause temporary changes in the Earth's climate. Volcanologists are the scientists who study volcanoes. They predict the possibility of a volcanic eruption as well as the severity. However, Volcanologists can not always exactly forecast when and where the next volcanic eruption will occur. That is why, it is important to know the basics in on how to prepare for an emergency volcanic eruption. 1. First, you need to be at least familiar with the terms associated with volcanic eruptions. These will be very helpful in understanding news about volcanic eruptions. Volcanic ash refers to small dust particles or large pieces of rocks which are erupted to the air and carried down together with volcanic gases. These volcanic ashes can corrode metals, decompose fabrics, clog machineries, block water intakes and drains, and of course kill vegetation. Pyroclastic flows are those streams of molten volcanic rocks. These flow at hurricane velocity. Because of their high temperature and speed, they can destroy everything in their path. 2. Coordinate with your local emergency team to check for any areas in your region which are prone to pyroclastic flows and volcanic ash. 3. If the volcano is starting to show some signs of eruption, do not go anywhere near it. As mentioned above, Volcanologists could not precisely predict the time a volcano may erupt. You can get immediately killed by a sudden eruption. 4. Follow your local government's advise when they say you need to evacuate. You should avoid lower areas, especially to those places downwind. Although high infrastructures, such as tall buildings can offer protection from volcanic ash, these are not enough shelter for rock debris and lava flows. 5. As much as possible, do cross a bridge because of the danger caused by mudflows. If you need to cross bridges, look upstream first and ensure that no mudflow is approaching. Take note that mudflows move faster than you can ever run. 6. If the volcano has started emitting volcanic ash, do not go outside until the ash has settled. Also, avoid opening any windows and doors in the house. 7. Once the air is clear, immediately remove any volcanic ash which may have settled on your rain gutters and roofs. Volcanic ash can be disastrous if they have thickly accumulated on your rooftops. In addition, these can cause severe respiratory diseases, especially to infants and old people with lung problems. 8. If you need to drive, avoid areas which have already been heavily covered with dust. Maintain a speed slower than 30 mph. 9. Of course, you need to prepare enough food and water to last for several days. You would also need spare batteries and dust masks. You can use extra clothing to cover your head and thin cloths to breathe with. When news of volcanic eruption is out, be sure that you are always prepared wherever you maybe. Arm yourselves with enough knowledge to reduce the great impact that a volcanic eruption have. Always listen to the radio for updates and advice on how you can safely overcome this disaster. Volcanic eruption preparations do not stop after the volcano has erupted. Once the disaster is over, there are a lot of cleanup operations needed. Recovering from a volcanic eruption takes a long time. Cooperation within your community is needed. Don't Be Blown Off By A Typhoon Wherever part of the world you may live, you are likely to encounter a typhoon of some kind from time to time. Of course, there are specific places more prone to typhoons. There are also typhoons which are deadly and could cause great damage, not only to crops and infrastructures but also to human beings. If meteorologists forecast that a strong typhoon is coming, it is not enough for us to just sit at home and watch TV. If the typhoon is strong enough, you won't even be able to watch TV because of electricity blackouts. Typhoons are just one of the ways nature demonstrates its power, you should take precautionary measures to avoid any untoward incidents during the typhoon. Although different kinds of typhoons in different places may bring different kinds of danger, there are some basic emergency preparations that you can do. To ensure your safety, familiarize yourself with the kinds of typhoons that hit the area where you live or are visiting and with the local government's safety rules and regulations. Once the National Weather Service have broadcasted that a typhoon will possibly hit your area, immediately start your emergency typhoon preparations. Here are a few things you can do before a typhoon arrives. 1. Fix any broken doors and windows. Make sure that there are no objects which could obstruct the entrance, just in case you may need to evacuate. Tape your big glass windows which can be potentially shattered by road signs, tree branches and other things. 2. If the place where you live always had problems with floods and a great typhoon is expected, move to an evacuation center in a higher ground even before the water levels reach a meter high. You should also park your car in a higher ground. Do not leave it in your garage because it can be carried by strong floods and cause bigger disasters. 3. Since it wouldn't be wise to be loitering around during typhoons and convenience shops are possibly closed, store enough food and water for a few days. Power and water connections might also stop, so you might as well prepare a lot of candles, batteries, rain coats and thick blankets to keep you warm. 4. Make sure that all items in your backyard or balcony are fixed. If any of those items can possibly be flown by strong winds, better store them inside for the meantime. Also, remove rooftop construction accessories, if any, as these can be detached and may break other people's windows. 5. Ensure that all water drains in your home are clean to avoid clogged drainage systems which can cause a lot of water problems. 6. Listen to news about the typhoon. If the power is down, make sure that you have a battery-powered radio so you are still updated on what is happening, and know if in case there is an emergency evacuation program. Listening to the news will also keep you informed when the typhoon is expected to stop. Even if it already seems clear outside, do not leave you home unless you have confirmed that the typhoon is not coming back. It is possible that your area is just experiencing the eye of the typhoon. When the eye of typhoon passes, there are no rains or strong winds. After the typhoon, do not forget to fix whatever has been damaged. Check that no water is leaking into your home. There are still a lot of accidents which can happen because of not taking enough responsibilities of the effects of the typhoon. When The World Goes To War A war is possibly the last thing anybody would want to live to experience. The world has already been a witness to several wars. As students, we have studied different wars and how the people during those times have lived. War times are definitely not good times. Recently, different parts in the world have gone to war. We see different war footages on television and notice how the number of casualties exponentially rises up. Although almost everybody realize that there are no victors in wars, we can't seem to totally eliminate the prospect of having to go to war. Somebody famous once said, if we want peace, we have to prepare for war. But as mere civilians, we don't have that much power to largely make a difference during war times. The most we could probably do is to prepare ourselves, if in case war breaks out suddenly. Just like in preparing for natural calamities, we need to stock as much food and water as possible. Equally important are pieces of cloth that we could use to cover our mouth and nose, and sunglasses for our eyes as protection against dust particles brought about by bombings and the like. On a larger scale, the government planning to involve in a war should have prepared emergency underground facilities. These facilities would contain grain silos and medical stockpiles. Civilians and injured soldiers are usually housed in one of these underground facilities. Large cities in the United States have several underground centers that they could use during war emergency situations. Examples of these are the underground facilities near major railroads. Aside from gun and ammo, the government should also equip themselves with machineries such as truck transportable bridges, mobile refineries, mobile decontamination services, and water purification systems. Other amenities such as petroleum supply are especially reserved for times of war. Of course, the government will have to organize effective cooperation between its different civil services. The police, healthcare service, fire service and other public utility providers are expected to work together to ensure that civilians get as much protection as possible. Sometimes, able bodies might be requested to undergo special training programs to help protect the rest of the civilians. War is such a large scale event that as individuals and small communities, we could only do so much. Most of the preparations involved are left to the national government and international security institutions. As citizens, we will be left with no choice but to follow where the government leads us in times of war. Collective effort is very important for survival. Probably the most effective way of preparing for war is to disseminate information effectively and rapidly. Information on self-protection should be disseminated to the public. Concerned international authorities will also be able to benefit from information sharing. A large pool of information resources will be helpful for both parties, and would allow them to hopefully come into an agreement even before war could eventually break out. Because of high technology, which greatly affects how the world goes to war, preparing for war is getting more and more complicated. We already have nuclear, chemical and biological weapons which can wipe out a continent within a few minutes. High walled palaces made of stone which used to protect early civilizations from war are not enough anymore with the severity of the damage which these weapons can cause. It is now or never, prepare for home emergency The fact of the matter is that not one person knows just exactly are the specific problems that could eventually result during a major and over all emergency. The best thing one could possibly due is make himself prepare for anything that could happen. The following are some of the tips, advice and recommendation in order to amply prepare for an emergency. The following are from the emergency service from the California office of the Red Cross. Water is life, life is water As much as possible, try to keep a water supply of a gallon for every person each day and one that would be enough to go on for up to three to seven days. Water should be kept in containers made of plastic. Also, make sure that you also have filters and tablets for the purposes of purification ready and available when needed. Store food for you and your family Food that is not as easily perishable should be stored for you and your family, and such foods must be enough to last you, your family, as well as your pets, for three days up until one week. Examples of such foods are canned goods, powdered juices, boxed vegetables and food. Have an alterative It is always a wise idea to have a cooking source that could serve as an alternative besides the usual electric stove you may be used to. Having a ready barbecue stove or a propane stove on hand is the best recourse if in case the electricity goes out or if gas becomes no longer available. However, if you are to utilize propane, ensure that the tank is completely full and that an extra propane tank is also available. Collect clothes Have a ready and available stock of clothes for your kids and yourself as well as sleeping bags. Collect wood Having a steady supply of good wood is also a good idea as these could be used for those fireplaces or for stoves that use wood for burning. Have a light A flashlight is the item that you simply could not do without especially during emergencies. Try to consider using recharging through solar means as well as units that are cranked by hand. This is in order to avoid any future worries on batteries. Keep prescriptions As much as possible, try to keep any prescriptions that you or your family member may have filled. Also, try to maintain an added supply of medication both non-prescription and prescribed ones. Contact your healthcare provider for any refill prescriptions in advance. Have cash and some gas Credit is good unless there is an emergency. Try to keep ready cash just in case the atm's fail or the system of your bank is not working. Also, it is best if you keep the gas tank of your car half full. This is so to avoid the long lines in gas stations. Have books During emergencies, it could be safe to have some books and some board games available to entertain yourself during power failure. Know thy neighbor It is also better if you acquaint yourself with the neighbors you have in your area. There could be instances wherein you ay need each other's help if ever the basic services are somewhat interrupted. All in all, preparation is always the best cure against any unexpected circumstance that an emergency might bring. Prepare for a flood the best way you could Believe it or not, floods are the natural disasters that is most common in America. According to statistics, more than a hundred people are killed by floods every year. Also, more than four billion dollars are the cost damages caused by floods. All this is according to the Red Cross of the United States. The following are few tips and advice you could do in order to prepare yourself for any flood inevitability. Expect the expected It is important that you clearly understand and that you are aware of any damages that a flood could cause. Some of these inevitabilities include boulders that are rolling, trees that are ripped right out from the ground, buildings that are destroyed as well as bridges, sliding debris. Do not be afraid to ask It is also vital that you ask around your local zoning and planning office as to whether the property you are on is below the level of the flood or above it. Also, it is always good to know if the area you are in has had a history of being flooded. This knowledge helps a lot in the preparation of activities and tasks to do in case if a flood does hit. Familiarize yourself In your own community, it is best that you familiarize yourself in any or all of the warning signals or signs whenever a flood does occur. Learn, learn, learn Know what are your community's plan for evacuation. This helps you prepare yourself as well as your family and friends as on what to do as well as the step by step drill. Have an insurance It helps if you have insurance that is tailored particularly when a flood occurs. Believe it or not, the insurance usually associated with home owners will really not be able to reimburse any damages you may have that are caused by floods. Keep all vital documents These documents include any policies for insurance, passports, birth certificates, etc. All these papers should -- as much as possible -- be kept in a box that is waterproof and one which could be accessed easily. Move, move, move If in case your fireplace, furnace, electricity panel or water heater is in the basement or 1st floor of your house, you could consider moving it up the attic. In that way it will be a lot less probable for these to be damaged by raging floodwaters. Plug it all Plugging all trap sewers you have in your house using check valves actually prevent any floodwater from going into the drains of your house. During emergencies, using large stoppers or corks is also a good idea to plug tubs and sinks. Check and build Checking with the local codes of buildings is a good idea as this will let you know whether it is okay to build walls for floods and to be used as barriers around your own house in order to prevent any floodwater from getting in your premises. Waterproof it all In order to protect walls of basements, seal them using waterproof compounds so that floodwaters would be unable to get in through any cracks. Have a radio and some supplies As much as possible, keep a radio that is operated by batteries if in case the power goes off. Having supplies such as canned goods is a must as well as first aid kits. Do not forget a can opener of course. All in all, preparation is always the best defense against floods. Vital steps in preparation for an industrial emergency First things first, the fact of the matter is that there are great benefits to be had when there is guidance and ample preparation in cases of an emergency. Planning and preparation helps industries and corporation discover any hazardous problems or conditions that could be unrecognized and if not paid attention to could possibly aggravate a situation. When there is preparation, deficiencies are immediately brought to light. Some of these deficiencies could include resource-lack (e.g. lack of personnel that are adequately trained, lack of supplies, lack of equipment, to name a few). Knowing these details beforehand helps correct any lack in the soonest possible time. It also prevents major losses and casualties as well as financial organizational collapse. Another advantage of preparing for an industrial emergency is that it helps promote appropriate safety and awareness among the workers as well as present a company that is concerned with the welfare of all its staff. The following are some of the needed steps designed to assist industrial plants as well as businesses in preparing for any type of emergency. Establish a team As much as possible, set-up a good planning team. A leader as well as a staff must be chosen as based on their appropriate capabilities and skills. Particular tasks should also be assigned to teams or individuals. Analyze hazards and capabilities It is also important to assess the preparations the industrial plant or the organization currently has against risks such as power failure, damage in structures, among others. In an emergency such as flooding, contacting the manager of the local floodplain as well as other flood officials helps organization and industries learn the risks involved. Using building materials that are flood-resistant, erecting a physical barrier as well as anchoring structures and tanks is one of the ways to prepare in advance for flood emergencies. Meanwhile, preparing against high winds is by reinforcing the roof as well as the side panels. Covering windows is also important, covering the doors and removing any objects that are loose from the industrial plant's site is a must. Have a backup As much as possible, have a backup emergency power such as a battery storage, power and heat system combined. It is also vital that contact utility info be obtained in case of a power outage. The plan should be developed It is important that there is a plan developed during, before as well as after a particular emergency. Protocols should be established for the welfare of the employees, especially their safety and similarly the readiness of the site. Emergency power should also be updated as well as the options for power supply. Communication emergency systems must also be established. Responsibilities for each staff with regards to the recovery, shutdown and restart procedure should be outlined. An evacuation plan should also be developed including employee support. Procedures on shutting down the utility and the safe processing of operations is a necessity. Methods in protecting records, inventory and materials must also be developed. Plan implementation Staying in touch with the operations emergency center on your own state is important. In this stage, the appropriate preparation, shutdown, emergency backup and evacuation should be started. All in all, the final stage is the recovery process and the assessment of the damages brought by the emergency as well as in prioritizing needed repairs. Hopefully, the procedures above helps in the adequate preparation of industries and organization.
Stay Alive: Earthquake Emergency Preparation Tips Earthquakes are among the most devastating natural disasters. What makes it more annihilating is the fact that there is no precise way of predicting when an earthquake may occur. The most effective tactic to minimize the effects of earthquakes in human lives is to make adequate earthquake emergency preparations. During an earthquake, you will feel the ground shaking or rolling. If the movement of the Earth's crust is really violent, you might even hear the ground rumbling or roaring. These earthquake characteristics may cause you to panic and eventually jeopardize your chance of survival. While strong and devastating earthquakes seldom happen, even in places located in the Earth's ring of fire, it is imperative that you have an emergency plan so that you and your family can stay safe. Here are a few pointers to remember to keep you prepared for an earthquake. Practice Makes Safety The key to being safe during an earthquake is having quick reaction. As soon as the ground shakes violently, you should know what to do as if by instincts. To be able to react fast during earthquakes, you must regularly conduct earthquake drills. This will keep you on your feet when the real thing comes. Plan Your Home Structure If you are living in a place that is frequented by earthquakes, you must plan your home in such a way that it will not become your deathbed. Use light materials for your home and provide ample exit ways to run to during emergencies. Collapsing home and building materials commonly cause injuries and deaths during earthquakes; and to avoid this, you must make sure that most of your home structure and appliances are not heavy enough to crush you. Make sure also that your place has strong doorways or doorframes; as statistically these places are the most likely places that can withstand earthquakes. Fasten tall and heavy fixtures to the wall. And ensure that your cabinets have latches so that whatever they contain will not fall out during an earthquake. Plan For Everybody Everybody in your office or home should know your emergency plan for an earthquake. Make sure that everybody understands the procedures to perform whenever the big shaker happens. Coordination is an important survival aspect particularly after the earthquake. Know Your Place Knowing where to run and hide for cover during an earthquake may save your life and limbs. Learn the safe spots of your home or office. And practice going to these safe spots so that you can immediately react by going into these places during an actual earthquake. Also plan a meeting place for your officemates or family where all of you can gather yourselves up after an earthquake. Delegate Responsibilities In your office or within your family, assign duties that everybody must perform during earthquakes. Earthquake preparation should never be a one-man job. Your officemates and family members should be made to understand of what to do, especially if you are not with them during an earthquake. Have Emergency Kits On Standby Finally, you must have a number of emergency kits ready in the office or at home. These kits must have the bare essentials that can help preserve life during emergencies. From drinking water, food, to first aid materials, your emergency kits will be your lifelines. Make sure that everybody knows where these emergency kits are kept. Tornado Emergency Preparation Every year, weather disturbances wreak havoc in different parts of the world. In the coastal communities of the United States, residents will often experience hurricanes. In the northern areas, snowstorms and blizzards. But in the continental plains, there are tornadoes. What is a tornado? This is a act of nature where a funnel of spiraling air comes out of nowhere and tears anything in its path. Most of these are a half kilometer wide and will disappear almost immediately just like how it popped into the air. Unfortunately, weather forecasters are not able to predict when this will happen. These move similarly to hurricanes and when one appears, people should hunker down and wait till its over. Before that happens, here are some tips that can aid in tornado emergency preparation. 1. People who live in tornado prone areas should have a silo built a few feet under the ground. Studies have shown that this natural calamity can easily destroy the home so this is the best place to stay when disaster strikes. 2. The silo should have an amply supply of food, water, medicine and other necessities. It will take time to rebuild everything if the home sustained a direct hit and insurance companies won't shoulder the repairs. 3. There may not be time to run to the silo if the tornado suddenly appears. When this happens, the person should find a place to hide until it is safe to come out. Family members who are separated must go to the assigned meeting place and wait there until the other members arrive. 4. The best way to recover from this will be to have hidden stash of money at home or in the bank at all times. Some call this the emergency fund and this will be one of those times that victims will be happy knowing that everything will be all right. 5. The community will probably not have power, water and communication with the outside world if all the lines went down. Having a portable radio and a set of batteries will keep the people informed of what is happening outside since emergency services will also be out to assess the damage. 6. If the parents are not home and the tornado strikes, someone must be designated as the leader until the elders get back. This individual must be ready to handle the situation and make sure that everyone stays together until help arrives. 7. The family should also hold tornado drills so everyone will know what to do when it happens. Setting a standard like going into the silo in less than 5 minutes will help prepare everyone for the real thing. The tips mentioned regarding tornado emergency preparation should be taken seriously because this can happen at anytime. It is better to be prepared than caught unaware of what is going on which could mean someone getting injured or even killed. There is no way to escape a tornado should the home be directly in its path. Everyone should just stay inside the silo and wait until the all-clear signal has been given for everyone to come out. Afterwards, this is the time to try and get in touch with those that are not home to make sure he or she is all right. Tips for War Emergency Preparation During the height of the cold war, the government made various programs to prepare its citizens for a nuclear holocaust. This included making bomb shelters hundreds of feet from the ground as well as teaching children to stay under the table in the event of an attack. In 1989, the Cold War ended and this is no longer considered as a threat. Unfortunately, after 9/11, America is facing a new enemy. It is no longer a country that has a vast army capable of invading another nation. This foe is now fighting a guerilla war by conducting terrorist attacks both here and abroad. There has not been a major strike on US soil since 2001. The intelligence communities of various nations have foiled such attempts even though there have been attempts such as the plan to bomb transatlantic from the UK. Can anything be done to prepare for the next world war? Preventing the next biggest conflict is difficult but not impossible. Thermonuclear is just one way an attack will be carried out but the use of chemical and biological weapons is a bigger threat. Many people may perish but following some tips for war emergency preparation may ensure the person's survival. 1. People go to the supermarket each week to replenish the food that was consumed. It wouldn't hurt to buy a few extra canned goods every so often because it will not spoil until it is opened. 2. Aside from food, having an amply supply of drinkable water will prevent dehydration. Plastic jugs can be purchased from the supermarket but if it is unsafe to go out, the people will have to get this from the faucet. It will be a good idea to add a purification tablet and boil this first to make sure it is safe to drink. 3. Having a first aid kit is always useful to treat wounds. The individual should check that it is complete at all times because no one can tell when this will be needed. 4. If people have to evacuate, it will be a good idea to bring food, water, a few extra clothes, flashlight, compass, matches, candy and an identification card. Everything should be packed in a backpack so everyone can move quickly to the nearest evacuation center. 5. The last tip for war emergency preparation is to be familiar with the disaster plans that have been made the federal government and city. Some states already have contingency plans in place. This has been announced in the Internet and on television and if this should happen, people should stay calm and slowly evacuate. The tips mentioned are not only useful in the event of war but also when faced with a hurricane, an earthquake or any other natural calamity. This is because people who want to live through the crisis will do anything to see another day. When the first plane crashed into the world trade center, everyone first thought it was an accident. As the second plane hit, everyone knew it was something worse. There has not been a major conflict in over fifty years but it does not mean that people are safe. There are elements in the world that want to do harm and people have to be prepared for it. Safety Emergency Preparation Tips When There is a Tornado From March to May of every year, the southern states are occasionally plagued by disastrous weather phenomenon known as tornadoes. For northern states, the risk comes during spring to the onset of summer. Tornadoes are considered as storms. And you know that no storm is not violent. The dangers caused by tornadoes are not due to the gustiness of the winds but by sudden and unanticipated occurrence. Unlike hurricanes, which are comparatively more powerful, the onset of a tornado can not be easily tracked. Satellite weather systems can not easily spot them because of their sudden development and their relatively smaller scale. Thus, people can only tell that there is a tornado when they actually see one. Tornadoes are massive and destructive mass of air accumulating rapidly is a circular manner. The wind is so strong that almost everything that comes to the way of the tornado is easily flown into it. How to tell if a tornado is approaching Before any safety measure, it is imperative that you be knowledgeable about the appearance and the indicators of the presence of the violent weather phenomenon. Take note that before a tornado hits an area, the wind may not be destructive minutes before the tornado hits the place. Often, before a tornado is observed, the wind may be very still. There may or may not be presence of rain. Usually, tornadoes occur at the trailing end of a thunderstorm. Thus, if there is strong thunderstorm, be prepared on the possibility that a tornado may come anytime during of before the thunderstorm ends. Because tornadoes are made up basically of strong and whirling winds, one can not easily see them. Often, reported cases indicate that the tornado appears like a cloud-like structure. Tornadoes can be seen due to the debris and dust they have accumulated while tracking their courses. You may see the debris rotating in the air in circular, whirling motion. Before a tornado hits an area, you can also hear loud roaring sound that is almost similar to an approaching freight train. The wind will also become turbulent and destructive. Safety measures before a tornado One indicator that a tornado will possibly hit an area is dark and often violet to greenish sky, which is prevalent during destructive thunderstorms. When you see and feel the indications of an approaching tornado, find a safe shelter right away. Remember, tornadoes are destructive and fatal not merely because of the strong winds but because of the debris they have accumulated. These debris vary from roof, to large rocks, to large chunks of trees. When people are hit by such debris, that is the time the tornado becomes fatal. So make sure the shelter you find would protect you from any such debris. Safety measures during a tornado Homes located in areas that are often hit by tornadoes almost always have basements. Basements offer reliable protection to people during tornadoes, so find one during an attack of a tornado. If you are in your car, just get out and find a safe shelter. Or simply lie down on sturdy structure. Lie flat and cover the head with hands. Be alert and look out for falling debris coming from the tornado. After the tornado, make sure any structure in your home is not significantly damaged. Otherwise, seek professional help all at once to ensure your safety. Tornadoes are phenomenal that one can not prevent it from occurring. However, if you know the how-to's of being safe during such weather disturbances, you would avoid being one of the many casualties arising from such a weather turbulence. Important Tips For Flood Emergency Preparation Strong tropical storms and hurricanes often cause flooding, even in areas that are not prone to such an event. With the extreme weather conditions that we are facing today, everybody should be prepared for anything, particularly flooding. Here are the things you need to do to safeguard your home for flash floods: Prevent water from entering your home If you are expecting heavy rains or storms to hit your locality, particularly if you live in a flood-prone area, you should cover your doors, or even windows, with metal sheets, sandbags, or plywood. You can also use silicone sealant to ensure that water will not enter your home. Shut off your utilities You should remember to turn off all your utilities, such as gas, electricity and even water, at the mains. You should also remember to unplug all your electrical appliances and store them at high places, on the second floor, if possible. Be mindful of your appliances and furniture You need to ensure that your furniture and appliances are kept on high areas or upstairs. If you do not have a second floor, you can just raise such items on blocks or bricks. Be sure to remove carpets, curtains and even internal doors. Store them all in high places to ensure that they are protected from water. Important papers, pictures and other personal items should also be placed on higher grounds, particularly on the second floor of your house. If not, you should put important papers on sealed bags to ensure that they are protected from floods. Make sure that all objects outside your house, such as rakes, are kept in a safe place. Floodwater can easily float these items, which can pose danger to others. Here are important things you need to do once you a flood warning has been issued: * Information is crucial during situations like these. Thus, you need to always listen to the radio for announcements and updates. * Be sure to cooperate fully with local authorities and emergency services. If they require you to evacuate, follow them and do not dillydally. * Since electricity will almost certainly be unavailable, you must ensure that you do all the things you need to do during the day. It is much more difficult and unsafe to do things in the dark. * Share the information with your neighbors, particularly the old people, so that they can also prepare themselves. * Be sure to stay inside your house. Floodwater can kill, especially when it is raging, so do not attempt to go out. It is important to note that rapid flowing water that is six inches high could make you fall, while two feet of water could make your car float. * Ensure that your pets and cars are in a safe location. Once you heard of flood warning, you should stay on the second floor of your house. * There maybe objects floating in the water, so do not attempt to swim through raging flood. You can either be swept away or be knocked over by objects that are in the water. * Floodwater may be dirty and contaminated with sewage, so you should avoid contact if possible. It would be a shame that you survived the flooding, but fell ill because of contaminated water. * River bridges, sea defenses, and riverbanks are very dangerous places to be in during floods, so be sure to steer away from them if possible. There have been many cases wherein floodwater have destroyed or collapsed bridges and defenses. Fire Emergency Preparation for Schools A fire can occur at any place even if there are systems in place such as smoke alarms and water sprinklers. Should this happen in the school where the person is working in, it will be a good idea to review the emergency preparation plans. The fire emergency preparation plan involves two things. These are namely information and delegation. The first thing the individual should do is read the manual and note where are the nearest exits. This is usually posted in each classroom with lighted signage's showing the way. This matter should also be discussed with fellow faculty and staff if certain improvements can be suggested. It is only after a well thought of plan is made that this should be explained to the students. The sad part is there will be some people who will not take the matter seriously. This should be firmly stressed because this could mean a matter of life or death to everyone when this happens. . There may be fire drills conducted once a year but these are not done on a regular basis. This means that many will panic when the real thing happens so preparedness is something that should not be taken lightly. Delegation depends on who first noticed the fire until the evacuation has been done. If there is smoke coming out of one room, the individual should not open the door because oxygen will just make the fire stronger causing a back draft and a possible explosion. The individual should immediately call 911 and pull the fire switch so that the teachers and the students are alerted of the danger. Some classes may order everyone to form a line in the back then proceed out slowly to safety by moving to the nearest fire exit. There are fire extinguishers usually situated along the hallways or in the classrooms. These can be used to handle small fires but should not be used to handle bigger ones because there is not enough to kill the blaze. The person should not try to be a hero but rather help get other people out. There will usually be a lot of smoke making it difficult to see what is in front. To avoid suffocating, it will be a good idea to put something to cover the face and then use the sense of touch to get the feel of what is in front. Elevators should never been used in the event of a fire. The power could short out keeping the person trapped inside and even cause death due to smoke inhalation. All personnel should use the stairs since this is the fastest way to get out. Should someone be caught on fire, the individual should help by putting a heavy blanket to put out the flames. If this should happen to the person, the right thing to do would be to stop, drop and roll. The last part of any fire preparation plan is the assembly point where everyone in the class should meet so everyone can be accounted for. Everyone should stay put until someone with higher authority issues the order that it is safe to go back inside. Everyone should be well aware of the fire emergency preparation plan since this is the only way to get out of a dangerous situation. Importance of climate change emergency preparation The world is getting smaller everyday because of the technological advancements of mankind. However, the same factors responsible for making human life and the human race better is also responsible for the degradation of the environment. Man has been exposed to a more comfortable life and he wants more. He may have everything he needs to live a better and more comfortable life but he is becoming greedy to the point of wanting more than what Mother Nature can afford. The environmental disasters that are reported in different countries almost every day should serve as a wake up call to humanity that perhaps, they should now be more considerate of the environment. Mother Nature may be generous but she can also become angry and vindictive when she has reached the saturation point. The strong typhoon, earthquake, soil erosion leading to the collapse of residential areas are just some of the common disasters that are actually caused by men. Illegal logging, the throwing of industrial wastes in the rivers, increased used of un-biodegradable materials are only among the few sins mankind has committed against nature. Evidence will point out to the fact that environmental retribution will most likely behold mankind soon and he should be prepared for a major disaster brought about by climate change anytime now or in the future. The issue on the greenhouse effect is not just propaganda in order for environmentalist groups to earn their funding requirement. Global warming is upon us and this can be gleamed from the major environmental changes like too much heat, too much cold and other phenomenon that mankind is faced with. But no matter what mankind does now, he can ever revert global warming; he can only delay it. What is important is mankind knows the possible effects of climate change and what can be done to alleviate the negative effects. Climate change can lead to emergencies like the increasing level of the sea water, forest fires and other manifestations. When this happens, the scientists and world leaders should have an emergency program that they can implement to make sure that lives are not lost and properties are not wasted. The first thing to do is to launch a massive information campaign to make the whole world aware of what is happening in the environment as a result of climate change. People should know what to expect in terms of the possible environmental disasters as well as the possible diseases that may be caused by climate change. The best emergency preparation kit for people all over the world is knowledge. Knowledge on what is about to befall them once the effects of climate change becomes manifest in our environment would help societies lessen the brunt of the anger of Mother Nature. Every country should prepare for any emergency brought about by climate change. Even the first world countries that have all the technology would have a hard time facing this disaster. How much more the third world countries that are not even past the problem of providing food resources for their citizens? Every household should be taught how to prepare for climate change emergencies. They should no longer rely on their governments to see them through the effects of climate change because once that happens, there may be a possibility that even government will become debilitated to act. Everyone has to act now. They do not have a choice. The Basic Guide on Civil War Emergency Preparation Peace has become an elusive dream for the whole world especially now that the world powers are scampering for world supremacy. Each powerful nation seems to have a secret nuclear arsenal that is on standby in case some other super country is prepared to expose its own nuclear power. While people all over the world should be concerned about a third world war that will surely be swift considering the use of the nuclear arsenal of every powerful country, people however have to be prepared for something just brewing around the corner. The risk of a civil war erupting in just about any country is an ever present risk that should be looked into not only by world leaders and the church but also by every person concerned about the safety of his community. Some countries like Africa have become numbed to strife including civil wars that they no longer anticipate when it is going to happen again. War has displaced more than twenty five million Africans, most of whom live in evacuation camps, with nary a decent roof to shelter even the children. Like any other war, Civil war can be deadly and can affect majority of the population especially children who could not fend for themselves. Every civil war carries with it human rights abuses from both military and civilians. The tragedy resulting from every Civil War the world has known is so encompassing. Take this: four million Sudan residents displaced, more than two million lives lost; more than 70 million people in Ethiopia hungry; add the millions of people suffering in Somalia and Ethiopia. This is the face of civil war and every person has to prepare for such an eventuality. Every family should create an emergency plan no matter what emergency should arise. They should not rely on their governments if they do not want to suffer separation, suffering and death in the government-designated evacuation camps. Families should consider taking survival courses which may include self defense lessons as well as gun firing lessons. Gun firing can be a family affair although children should be cautioned against the dangers of using guns in ordinary circumstances. A family would b e better off preparing an emergency first aid kit which should contain the basic medicine for ordinary illnesses. However, a family should from special illnesses like diabetes or asthma and include the basic lie saving and maintenance medicines in the safety kit. People who live in places that are susceptible to civil war and other emergencies should also pack a special kit which should contain sturdy shoes for family members, maps, all-purpose knife or a Swiss Knife would be better, canned goods, and basic toiletries like soap. Take every important thing but take only the basic necessities because when a civil war erupts, there may be a chance that the family would be displaced and may b e forced to survive for weeks or even months on the road escaping violence. Preparing for the eventuality of a civil war is not like courting danger or wishing for it to happen. Rather, it is making sure that the family increases its survival rate when such event happens. It is always better to be prepared for any emergency and if it does not happen at all, then who cares of the family has spent hundreds or perhaps even thousands for the emergency kit. It is all well worth it. Tips on earthquake emergency preparation The year 1906 was a determining factor in how future resident of the San Francisco area would live their lives. Will they be able to sleep peacefully at night knowing that anything can happen between the time they slept and the time they will be awake. But the question for most people is the possibility that they may never wake up again. The same goes for the people in Mexico, Baguio in the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan and other countries that have been victimized by strong earthquakes. Most of these people were caught unaware and this made the disaster more disastrous. San Franciscans are aware that someday, their city will fall into the depths of the city. But why do they continue to live in a city, which though beautiful, is a catastrophe waiting to happen again? Most of the people living in earthquake-prone areas prefer to live each day with the thought that they might never wake up again. However, what makes them different from majority of the people living safe lives in safe places is the fact that they are aware that a tragedy like an earthquake may strike them anytime and they are prepared for it. These people party and live life to the fullest but they made sure they live in earthquake-safe buildings. Most of the high rise establishments were constructed with a strong earthquake in mind Jason, a technology specialist lives in the Marina area which is the most earthquake-prone area in the city. While he accepts that he is taking a big risk living in that area, he takes no chances and always stores several gallons of water nearby. He has also prepared earthquake packs and emergency kits containing first aid medicines as well as food packs that can be eaten right out of the packet. He also has extra flashlights, batteries and other thing-a-magics guaranteed to make any normal person flip out. The most important thing to remember during an earthquake is to duck and keep off everything heavy that may fall on anyone. However, there are other earthquake emergency tips that will benefit any person who would be faced with an emergency earthquake situation at any time in his life. When faced with an earthquake circumstance, it is always better to seek refuge from tables that can protect a person from heavy objects that are falling from everywhere. When this is however not practical, a person should immediately go out and proceed to an open area without the danger of falling trees, high rises or power cables. Those who are caught driving when an earthquake occurs would be better off if they stay inside their car. When inside a grocery or a mall, make sure that the person is away from heavy shelves and other objects. When inside a theater or a sports stadium and an earthquake occurs, never run for safety and join the hundreds of people doing the same. Duck under the seat and wait until everything clears up. A lot of people get hurt or even die not because of the earthquake itself but because of panic and failure to prepare for such an emergency. It is always helpful to have an emergency earthquake plan even if earthquakes are not common in the area. Survival will always depend on how prepared a person is for emergencies. People who have not prepared for the worse case scenario are the ones who have the tendency to panic. And in most cases, those who panic and lose their presence of mind become the first victims of any emergency, Emergency Preparation Tips Before, During and After Eruption of a Volcano Volcanoes are truly fascinating features of nature. Most often, they are adored for beauty and wonder, like the perfectly structured cone of the Mayon Volcano in the Philippines and the monstrosity of Mt. Fiji in Japan. Volcanoes are almost like beautiful mountains except for they become disastrous. Volcanoes are also mountains, but they are different in sense that the geothermal activity within them are active and are occasionally subject to destructive processes. There are two kinds of volcanoes. One is dormant and inactive. Such volcanoes are like normal mountain and do not erupt. The other type id the destructive of the active volcanoes, which occasionally erupt. Most volcanoes around the world are located at special zones that are strategically located around the Pacific Ocean. Thus, the areas around the Pacific are collectively known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. The most destructive volcanoes are located in countries around the Pacific like Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. Hawaii and other islands around the Pacific are also rich in volcanic supplies. Volcanic eruptions Through the years, people have seen the destructive potential of volcanoes. Many people have lost properties and loved ones to raging and molten lava that erupting volcanoes produce. Often volcanic eruptions also accompany great and destructive earthquakes, making the disaster more catastrophic. Mudflow can also occur if there is rain over the crater of a volcano that is near eruption. Preparing for volcanic eruptions Fortunately, volcanic eruptions do not happen abruptly. That is because it would take some time before a volcano is able to accumulate enough lava that would trigger an eruption. Often, there are indicators that are monitored before an eruption of a volcano. Natives and residents of nearby areas could also tell when an eruption is eminent. Thus, volcanologists and seismologists would be able to advise people days or even months before the eruption of a volcano. The advice would serve as a warning. When a warning is issued to an area, people are expected to take the necessary precautions so their lives could be spared from the forthcoming disaster. Here are some emergency safety guidelines that could help you prepare for a volcanic eruption. * If your home is located within the few kilometers from the volcano, evacuate at once. You can opt to take your belongings with you or just leave them. * Earthquakes are normal occurrences when an active volcano is about to erupt so do not panic. Instead, proceed to doing the precautionary measures. * Sudden rains especially at the crater of the volcano would lead to an abrupt mudflow. The mud is not ordinary mud. It can contain pre-volcanic eruption debris and could be too hot that is enough to hard-boil an egg. Beware, or you may suffer from burns coming from mudflow. * When the volcano finally erupts, it may emit volcanic debris up in the air. Be prepared to see falling rocks and small stones coming from the crater. Thus, take a safe shelter during the eruption. * Prepare gas masks because the volcanic eruption may also be accompanied by foul odor coming from the release of sulfur. You may suffocate or may not be able to take normal breathing during a volcanic eruption. * Lava is the centerpiece of the eruption. It is also the most destructive material the volcano will produce during an eruption. It is composed of very hot mud that may instantly burn down any material. Avoid contact with the lava. * After the eruption, wait for volcanologists' advice on when you can safely get back to your homes. Volcanoes are truly one of nature's most destructive forces. Be prepared for volcanic eruptions if you live nearby an active volcano. You do not need to change address. All you need is to take precautionary measures when the volcano produces signs of eminent eruption. Emergency Preparation Tips for Typhoons Almost all countries near major ocean bodies are plagued occasionally by the occurrence of typhoons. In the Pacific, the weather disturbance is widely called typhoon. It is cyclone in the Indian ocean and in the United States, where most often it comes from the Atlantic, it is called hurricane. A typhoon is a massive accumulation of destructive winds and torrential rains over a huge body of water, particularly ocean. The accumulation is facilitated by an area characterized by the presence of a low-pressure, which makes evaporation and wind development faster. Typhoons do not develop overnight. Often, it takes about a few days before one is developed. Usually, typhoons start as thunderstorms that accumulate strength and intensify into a massive weather disturbance. Typhoons are easily tracked and monitored by weather satellites because of their huge radius and accumulated cloud system. Thus, weather bureaus are always able to track a development of one, making it possible for concerned government and safety bodies to release typhoon warnings for the safety of people who might be affected by the weather onset. A typhoon is an almost predictable calamity. Almost, because its tracks can easily change, but certain, because its presence is easily monitored. Preparing for a typhoon Countries that are always visited by typhoons have instituted safety measures to prepare people for the destructive weather occurrence and to help curb, if not totally prevent, injuries and casualties. When a typhoon is about to hit an area, typhoon warnings should already be released, at least 24 to 48 hours before the expected landfall of the weather disturbance. Thus, people, whose residences are within the warning areas, should first and foremost make the necessary safety precautions. Here are some of them. * Store enough food and drinking water that would last for a few days. The typhoons may bring in torrential rains and destructive winds that may ruin infrastructure. Groceries and markets might not be able to resume operations after a typhoon, so make sure your supplies would last until the situation goes back to normal. * Make sure your home is sturdy enough to endure potential gusty winds and flash floods. If not, just evacuate and go to designated safe evacuation or safety center. * During the typhoon, you may opt to put off electric currents within the house to prevent any electrical accidents. The local utility firm will voluntarily cut off the electric supply. * Typhoons bring in rains and winds so make sure you have jackets and umbrellas, in case you may need to flee. * If your home is safe enough, just stay indoors before and during the typhoon to ensure safety. During typhoons, electric wires might fall down to the streets and compromise safety. Same goes for falling, or even flying debris, which are the usual cause of injuries and casualties. * Always monitor news updates regarding the typhoon. Get transistor radios to make sure there would be no news blackout in case the electric and communication facilities shut down. Remember that typhoons are weather phenomenon. One can never prevent it from forming and coming over. However, what people can do is to help prevent the destruction of the weather disturbance. They can help by not becoming one of the casualties. Life is too precious and it is not worth losing it due to some occasional weather occurrence like the typhoon. Tsunami: What to Do and How to Survive Tsunamis used to be the stuff of movies and until it's devastation in Asia, most people didn't think it was possible for tsunamis to occur in that magnitude. With that realization, people have become aware of the risk and possible consequences of this natural calamity. What is a tsunami? Tsunamis are not caused by strong winds but by tectonic displacements (earthquakes, volcano eruptions, landslides) that occur on the seafloor. Earthquakes that produce tsunamis are those that reach 6.5 or more on the Richter scale. The average speed of the waves is 300 mph and can last from 5 minutes to an hour. In open sea, tsunamis usually go unnoticed, having amplitudes of just 1 meter or even less. However, in some situations, waves that enter shallow water can swell to several feet and in some rare cases, rise high enough to strike coastal areas with terrible force. Who's at risk? People who live in coastal areas located along or near the Pacific Ocean are most prone to tsunamis. This area is most vulnerable because of seismic activity in what is called the Ring of Fire. It has also occurred in Puerto Rico, Alaska, Hawaii and the Virgin Islands. What to do in a tsunami emergency When a strong earthquake is felt, leave the water immediately, get to shore and go as far away as you can from the beach, fast. If your location allows it, go to a higher ground. If the area you are in is mostly flat, go as far inland as you can. If you can spot the wave, you are too close to escape it, regardless of its apparent distance. Tune in to your local radio station, the weather radio or turn on the TV for news and updates. They will inform you if there is a tsunami watch or warning issued in your area and where the emergency centers are. Locate all members of your family and make sure everyone is informed. Agree on a place to meet in case you're not together and make sure it's safe and as far away from the shore as possible. If you have family members who have special needs like elderly people, small children or infants and those with disabilities, you might want to evacuate early. You might also want to prepare your pets for moving, so bring emergency supplies for them as well. Check your emergency supply kits and bring them with you. It would be a good idea if they had been regularly restocked but if not, take what you can or get what is needed if you still have the time and opportunity. Otherwise, opt to get water, food and extra clothes instead. You might want to secure your house, but remember that this is the last priority. Your life and that of your family's are the most important considerations during a tsunami emergency. Expect items in your house to be swept away and if you could still secure them, do so. Tsunami watch vs. tsunami warning A tsunami watch is different from a tsunami warning. A tsunami watch means that the presence of a dangerous tsunami is not yet confirmed or verified, although it is possible there is one. It also includes predictions on what time the tsunami is expected and where it will possibly strike. A tsunami warning means that there is a confirmed tsunami in your area and it could be close. The warning will include the time at which the tsunami is expected and which areas are affected. As a last emergency tip: If you find yourself under the mercy of an incoming wave, climb onto the rooftop of your house or on the highest point of the nearest structure and brace yourself. Hold on tightly to anything that's strong and stable enough. Climb a tree if you have to and don't let go. If you're already in the water, grab a floating object that can hold your weight and hold onto it until you can reach stable ground or when help is available. Grab onto anything that is firm and strive to get out of the water as much as possible. The current will be strong and there could be heavy and sharp debris in the water that could crash into you. Tsunamis, like most things nature produces, are uncontrollable. The only advantage is that they do come with a warning (a strong earthquake). The only way to survive it is to be prepared, be ready to go and to keep your wits about you. Tsunami Emergency Preparation In 2004, a tsunami swept over certain parts of Southeast Asia, which extended up to Africa. More than 200,000 people perished with some bodies never identified or recovered. The incident is not the first but one of many that have happened over the centuries. It is not only in the Pacific but also in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, which makes it everyone's concern. History shows that tsunamis have occurred dating from 1600 B.C until the present with the latest in July that killed more than 600 people in the island of Indonesia. Until now, the exact location where tsunamis will strike cannot yet be predicted. Once an underground earthquake occurs, an alert is sent to coastal communities that something could go in that direction. Since the Pacific is known throughout the world as the ring of fire due to the numerous underwater volcanoes, it is only right that a tsunami emergency alert system is in place to prepare people for the worse. The tragic event that took place almost two years ago never had such a system. It was only after that regional governments decided to come up with one to prevent it from happening again. The alert system is made up of four things. This is namely information, advisory, watch and warning. When an underground earthquake has been detected, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center based in Hawaii will issue the news to the countries in the region. Since the impact is not yet known, an advisory will be sent about possible areas that will be hit. There is a saying that goes, "it is better to be safe than sorry." The prediction may not happen but this is better than having a lot of casualties because the no warning was reported. The after effects of the underwater earthquake may take hours but everyone knows that the tsunami is coming. This is the time that people in the coastal communities should watch over the water. If it recedes, then a warning will be given to everyone that a mandatory evacuation must begin. A siren is usually used to inform everyone. This will sound at different times starting from three hours before impact until half an hour before the tidal waves are supposed to hit the beach. During this time, residents should already begin moving out of the danger zone. People can go deeper inland or run to the hills. It will be a good idea to bring water, food and clothing. Packing a light transistor radio will also be helpful to be able to stay informed when it is safe to come down. The tsunami emergency preparation does not end when the reports predict that it is on the way. People will still be there monitoring the situation to issue a warning cancellation if nothing happened or if it is safe to return. Countries that live in the Pacific Rim of Fire must coordinate with each other to minimize the loss of life. This is because it is much easier to rebuild and impossible to replace someone who died. Community leaders should hold exercises to time how long it takes to evacuate the area so that everyone will be ready when the real thing hits the shores. A headcount can be done to find out if there are any people still missing should the inevitable strike. Tips For Emergency Preparation During Severe Climate Changes Due to global warming and other factors, the changes in our climate have become drastic. We have seen the devastation of properties and cities. Many lives have also been lost due to super typhoons and hurricanes, which caused flooding, and extremely hot weather condition, which caused heat wave. Since we are no longer sure what type of weather will hit our locality, all of us should be prepared for whatever situation certain climate changes and situations would bring. Tips for preparing for hurricanes and storms Check your house Our house is our sanctuary during storms; thus, we need to regularly check the integrity of our roofs, walls, etc even before the hurricane season arrives. Since our house is our only defense against heavy rains and strong winds, we need to ensure that it can withstand severe weather conditions, especially if we live in hurricane prone areas. Once a hurricane warning has been issued, we need to start boarding up our windows and doors. We also need to shut off our gas and electricity and make sure that all objects that can fall or fly around must be removed. Prepare for provisions When a hurricane warning has been issued, you need to make sure that you and your family has enough water and food to last for days. Be sure that the food you will be stocking up are those that can be eaten even without cooking and does not need to be refrigerated. Moreover, you need to make sure that you have enough potable water for you and your family. Aside from food, you need to prepare for candles, matches, flashlights and batteries. In order for you to be always informed on what is happening, you need to have a battery-operated radio available. Heed government warnings If the government has called for an evacuation, do not think twice. Follow the advice of the government. Just make sure that your home is properly secured before you leave. Tips for preparing for heat wave Extremely hot weather can be dangerous, particularly for young children, old people, and those with certain health conditions, such as mental illness, heart and breathing problems. Listen to the news We need to closely monitor the situation and wait for warnings and bulletins issued by the government. Many people have died because they did not know that there is a heat wave and it was unsafe for them to go out during the hottest part of the day. Stay out of the sun It is really advisable to stay indoors when there is a heat wave. If you must go out, you need to ensure that you are wearing proper clothing and have a protection against the sun, such as a hat or an umbrella. You also need to schedule your day well so that you will be indoors from 11pm to 3pm, the hottest part of the day. Shower up Take a cold bath or shower several times a day. If you cannot do that, just wash your face and nape with cool water occasionally or whenever you feel hot. Regularly check on your elderly relatives and neighbors Old people are usually the ones who succumb to heat wave, thus you need to check your old relatives or neighbors once in a while. See if they are drinking plenty of water and are feeling well. If you cannot physically visit them, you can always call them during the day and constantly remind them to follow health bulletins for heat wave.
InfoBank Intro | Main Page | Usenet Forums | Search The RockSite/The Web