What is Forensic Nursing? Forensic Nursing is one of the newest specialty areas recognized by the American Nurses Association. It involves working with law enforcement officials to aid in the investigation of crimes such as abuse, accidental death and assault. They also collect evidence from the survivors of the violent crime as well as the suspect so a case can be can be made and justice can be served. Since crimes happen almost everyday even when the suspect is already in prison, forensic nursing requires a lot of manpower. Just to give you an idea, there is a Correctional Nursing Specialist, Forensic Clinical Nurse Specialist, Forensic Gerontology Specialist, Forensic Nurse Investigator, Forensic Psychiatric Nurse, Legal Nurse Consultant, Nurse Coroner/Death Investigator and Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner. The largest subspecialty of forensic nursing is sexual assault, closely followed by death investigation, forensic psychiatric nursing and medical-legal consulting. When sexual assault or rape occurs, it is the job of the forensic nurse to collect evidence and take pictures so whoever is responsible can be caught. This is done by cross referencing the DNA sample into the criminal database system assuming that the one who did it has a criminal record. If the victim knows who did it, a DNA sample can be collected from the suspect and if it is match, then an arrest is made. In terms of death investigation, the forensic nurse assists the pathologist in determining the cause of death of a victim. In some areas, this person is already the coroner. Forensic psychiatric nursing is all about giving a convict or a suspect a psychiatric evaluation. This will determine if he or she is fit for trial. Inmates who have been released who have been pardoned and released from prison may also have to do the same test so they can find work. In order for you to become a forensic nurse, you have to enroll in a program offered by a university which focuses on the criminal justice system, forensic mental health, interpersonal violence, perpetrator theory and victimology. You will also need practice experience under the auspices of a trained forensic doctor or nurse. Since there are improvements in forensic science, you must also enroll in continuing education courses. If you want to move forward in your career, take a formal graduate study program so you have a master's degree. Once you have your degree, you can already apply for work without having the need to get a certificate which is required in other nursing professions. Can you shift to forensic nursing after working for some time as a registered nurse? The answer is yes. You should just pass the exam that is given by the International Association of Forensic Nurses. Aside from helping law enforcement officials solve a crime or help a victim, forensic nursing is also useful in other fields. These include tissue and organ donation, pediatrics and in a correctional institution. In tissue and organ donation, the forensic nurse will talk to the family of the potential donor. When they agree, he or she will fill up the legal paperwork so everything is properly documented. In pediatrics, forensic nurses are present to assist and give comfort who have been victims of abuse and neglect. Forensic nurses who work in correctional facilities are there to perform health screenings, educate inmates on various health related topics, manage acute illness and injuries, dispense medication and provide acute and chronic assessments. There is a lot you can do as a forensic nurse. You just have to see what opportunities suit you most then go for it. A Brief Take on Forensic Nursing Crime scene investigators are the first people allowed to touch dead people's body at the spot where they were first discovered. The lead CSI observes and from what he saw, he concludes foul play. That's homicide TV for you there. As we see them geeks strut through the laboratory with all those gadgets to get evidence from the littlest of substances or debris we can't help but admire them, and possibly daydream of being them. Forensic nursing is a little something like that. Read on for more on forensic nursing description. Forensic nursing is a new specialty area in nursing practice that is fast gaining popularity even across nations. It is recognized by the American Nurses Association (ANA). The International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) is the group that helps promote and develop the field further. Forensic nurses take charge of investigating the causes of mortality or death in so many settings. Their responsibilities include: * Collection of evidence from the suspect and victim * Testify in court using evidence gathered as a fact witness or as an expert witness * Know how to properly handle evidence * Conduct forensic photography * Serve as bridge between health care and legal systems A forensic nurse should be skillful in making observations, documentations, and preservation of all evidences, which can help solve a criminal case. Forensic nursing is a broad science that covers sub-specialties like sexual assault, death investigation, psychiatric care, and medical-legal consultations. Here are the various types of forensic nurses: - Forensic Clinical Nurse Specialist - Forensic Nurse Investigator - Nurse Coroner or Death Investigator - Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner - Legal Nurse Consultant - Forensic Gerontology Specialist - Forensic Psychiatric Nurse - Correctional Nursing Specialist Crime-related situations have time and again proven the importance of forensic nursing. Owing to the skills of the forensic nurse to provide health care, they are most especially needed in establishing the concrete foundation to a more stable and effective justice and legal system. Training programs related to forensic examination of a victim were already available to qualified medical personnel as early as 1976. Health care professionals, both physicians and licensed nurses who underwent training spent 40 hours in the classroom learning the theories and concepts. Their training also exposed them to hands-on clinical practices that make them experience the actual applications of what they learned in the classroom. The pilot training programs were more inclined towards care for sexual assault victims. As years went by these early programs were developed further and has branched out to several courses like SAFE (Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner), SANE (Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner), FNE (Forensic Nurse Examiner), SANC (Sexual Assault Nurse Clinician), and the latest SAE (Sexual Assault Examiner). These are different acronyms but in general, they teach the same curricula. Violence is the usual root of all forensic nursing cases. This presents itself in various forms like verbal abuse, emotional abuse, physical abuse, animal cruelty, destruction of property, sexual assault or rape, homicide, and so many more. There is no specific victim profile since anybody can be one. There are kids aged 2 who become victims. The same age group of kids can also manifest signs of violent behavior. In a crime, victims can become the perpetrators too. Forensic nursing description can't be summarized in a few sentences or paragraphs, but still, it would be helpful to know even these basic things that were cited here. Do Forensic Nurses Have to Take The Certification Exam To Help Victims of Sexual Assault? A lot of people think that after taking the required courses, the only thing stopping you from becoming a forensic nurse is the certification exam. Those who have taken it say that the exam itself is very challenging but did you know that you are not required to take it? This is because you don't need to have a license to work as a forensic nurse. The important thing is that you have your diploma. If you want to work in a specialized field, there are advanced classes you can take, which also means a higher position. But why do some people still take it? This is because passing it adds credibility to what you do especially if you have to give testimony during a civil or criminal proceeding. The test consists of 5 parts namely dynamics of sexual assault, evaluation of the sexual assault patient, participation in the judicial process and professional practice/roles/issues. If you don't pass, the testing authorities will send you a breakdown of your scores in each of these categories so you will see where you didn't perform very well. With this information, it will be easy for you to pass on the second try. What you might find strange about the certification exam is that there is no passing or failing mark. You final grade depends on the scores of everyone who took the test. This means that there is a curve so if you scored 95 and more people scored lower, you are one of those who passed the exam with flying colors. However, if others did better, you could fail and that means taking the exam again. On average, you have to get 75% of the questions correctly to be sure that you passed the exam so study hard. But how do you review for the forensic nursing exam? You can enrol in a review program or do this by yourself. The important thing is to be able to answer almost any question they throw at you. Passing the exam simply adds credibility to who you are. Since science has found new ways to help victims of violent crimes, you must keep up with the times by attending seminars and other courses whenever they are offered. In fact, the American Nurses' Association offers this and other benefits to its members. All you have to do is sign up. Being a member, you become one of 2.9 million registered nurses working in its 54 constituent member associations. The certification exam mentioned is only for those who want to become a sexual assault nurse examiner. Given that forensic nursing is quite broad, you can explore other options. You could work as a specialist involved in tissue and organ donation, paediatrics, pathology, victimology or psychiatry. Some forensic nurses shift from one field to another after working there for a few years so they don't become stagnant in one specialty. All this experience could even land you a consultancy job later or even your own private practice. The vast majority of forensic nurses today are involved in sexual assault. Should you take the certification exam? That is up to you but it wouldn't hurt to be certified because it adds to your credibility when you are doing your share in bringing the suspect to justice. Forensic Nursing Certifications Can Qualify Registered Nurses Registered nurses who have been practicing health care for years now have the option to shift their careers if they want to. New graduates of the nursing course can check if they can divert from clinical nursing to a seemingly more challenging career in forensics. Nursing practitioners or even physicians, can obtain forensic nursing certifications if they want to shift their careers or they just want to upgrade their skills. The primary role of hospital nurses is in care giving. A forensic nurse can be a clinical nurse, who has great observation skills, can recognize and identify evidences, collect them and document them properly for use in convicting perpetrators of crime. This clinical nurse must of course, go through training and certification first before she can begin practicing professionally. A professional certification is a document that recognizes an individual's experience and knowledge in a certain field, profession or specialty. There are a lot of acronyms that refer to courses related to forensic nursing. There may be differences in the way they're called but the curriculum is similar in all types. These training programs are: * Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner -- SAFE * Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner -- SANE * Forensic Nurse Examiner -- FNE * Sexual Assault Nurse Clinician -- SANC * Sexual Assault Examiner -- SAE All these training programs include curricula, which give focus on: - Victimology - Perpetrator Theory - Forensic Mental/Psychiatric Health - Interpersonal Violence (same sex or otherwise) - Criminology - Criminal Justice Those who undergo any of the training programs have classroom hours and hands-on hours that are supervised by trained forensic doctors and nurses. The following are the most recognized methods on how one can acquire forensic nurse education or training: 1. Via certification programs provided by universities that offer forensic nursing aside from traditionally structured courses that lead to a nursing degree 2. Via continuing education programs that professional nurses undergo for renewal of their licenses. 3. Via undergraduate or graduate nursing courses or elective subjects on forensic nursing that are often offered as part of a certification program 4. Via Masters of Science with a degree in Nursing, which also offers special subjects on collecting evidence, forensic law and science, etc. These programs also offer internship in forensic crime laboratories, medical examiners' offices, shelters for crime victims, and the forensic psychiatry units of hospitals, The International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN), which was formed in the early 1990s as a result of a convention attended by 70 sexual assault nurses, has developed a certification program for all sexual assault nurse examiners. SANE-A Certification is a professional certification for sexual assault nurse examiners of adults and adolescents. SANE-P is intended for examiners of pediatric and adolescent patients. The SANE is considered the stepping-stone to forensic nursing. The IAFN requires the trainees to be registered nurses. They are subject to 40 instructional hours and another 40 hours for on-the-job duties. During the training, the nurses' skills are honed in collecting various evidences like hair strands, fibers, and fluids for DNA testing. Although forensic nurses are more into sexual assault cases, they are still helpful in other cases like domestic violence and various types of abuse (verbal, physical, emotional, psychological). Many forensic nurses can be seen in emergency rooms of hospitals so they can be on the lookout for shooting or stabbing cases. They gather the bullets and other possible evidences in the form of debris or fluid that can shed some light in the cause of the crime. Only a nurse that has undergone forensic nursing certifications can properly handle all these tasks. Forensic Nursing Careers Forensic nursing is fairly new in the industry given that this was only recognized as a specialty of nursing in 1995. Unlike other nursing professions where you have to take a state licensure exam, you are not required to get a job. However, many believe that passing the test adds credibility to the job. This is very important especially when you have collect evidence from a victim and have to offer this testimony in court. Everything you say should be objective because the evidence presents the facts themselves. For you to become a forensic nurse, you must have at least be a resident nurse and complete the training regimen. This includes specialized training in the classroom as well as 40 hours of didactics and 40 hours of clinical work. For those who want to specialize to become a SANE or sexual assault nurse examiner, part of the training focuses on handling and collecting evidence like fibers, hairs and fluids which are collected for DNA testing. You will also need to learn how to use the equipment. It can be very basic like a digital camera to an Omnichrome or a colposcope which can detect bruising underneath the skin's surface. When a victim is brought in to the emergency room, you spring into action and then talk to the person. Working with law enforcement officers, you will be able to comfort the victim, get details and then get the person who did it. This normally takes 3 to 4 hours. Another forensic nursing career could be that of a nursing forensic examiner. This job will also involve collecting evidence but most of those brought in are victims of interpersonal abuse. This includes child or elder abuse, domestic violence, near fatal to fatal traumas, shootings and stabbings. In cases of stabbing and shootings, the most important thing to get is the bullet and any other items that are left on the victim. They will also remove the clothing so this can be examined by preserving this in a special wrapping before transporting this to the lab. Should the victim die, then the forensic nurse examiner will work with the medical examiner by answering questions about what he or she saw before this person died. If you want to go into private practice, one subspecialty is that of forensic psychiatry. Here, you don't have to collect evidence but you have to evaluate the mental capacity of the person to see if she or she is fit to stand trial in a jury of their peers. Since you evaluated that person, you may be called in as an expert witness in both criminal and civil proceedings. For this, you need to complete a basic certification course. Forensic nursing has a lot of potential given that it is something new. Statistics show that there will be a demand for more trained professionals in the next 10 years and with that goes to the wages. This means you are sure to find a job in a community health center, hospital, public health department, law firms and correctional facilities. But is a forensic nursing career all about money? Certainly not because as a healthcare professional and from a legal perspective, you are able to help not only the victims but also their families coping with what happened especially when what you do helps catch whoever is responsible for it.
Salary Range For Forensic Nursing Should you go into forensic nursing? If you do, one question you have to ask yourself is how much you will make if you decide to make a career out of it. Fortunately, the job outlook is very promising because the Bureau of Labor and Statistics believe it will go up in the next 10 years. But how much does a forensic nurse make now? Most professionals right now earn about $26 to $100 per hour which is roughly $54k to $208k a year. You have to remember that this depends on your skill; speciality, tenure, location and experience so don't expect to earn a lot when you are just starting out. Most forensic nurses do not work inside the hospital because they are called to a scene. If the victim is brought to the hospital for an examination, that person will get $1 to $4 dollars an hour. If you get lucky, you could get $150 to $400 depending on what was agreed upon. But money should not be the prime factor in deciding whether or not to pursue a career in this field. Just like nurses who work in the hospital, you have to enjoy helping people. Instead of helping patients, most of the time, you are helping victims. Many who work in forensic nursing are involved in helping victims of sexual assault. This is done by conducting an evidentiary exam so anything collected will make it easier for the police to arrest the person responsible. One of the wonders we have today is the use of DNA so if there is a match, there is no doubt that the police have the right person in custody. Some forensic nurses work in the field of pathology by helping the medical examiner determine the cause of death. This means opening up the victim and then providing the investigating team clues so the killer can be arrested. But solving crimes is not the only thing that a forensic nurse does. They also give psychiatric evaluations to see if the person is fit to stand trial or to help convicts who are released from prison to find a decent job. After all, it is not easy to find employment when you have spent some time in the joint. You may also find a permanent in the hospital by processing tissue and organ donation by talking to the family of the terminally ill patient then asking if they are willing to do so. While some will not agree to this, there are those who are willing so part of your job is to make sure that the paperwork has been filled up correctly. Forensic nursing is a new field that was only established in early 1990's. Although the program is similar to that of the regular nurse, what makes you different is that you will also be focusing on the criminal justice system, forensic mental health, interpersonal violence, perpetrator theory and victimology. The salary range of forensic nurses is very broad. You can work for the local authorities or establish your own private practice. What is important is that you like what you are doing so the first thing you have to do is go to school and earn that degree. One last hurdle you will have to face is the exam. Online Forensic Nursing Programs Forensic nursing just like traditional nursing has a lot of specialty areas. As a result, a forensic nurse may find work as a sexual assault nurse examiner, crime scene and death investigator, correctional nurse and psychiatric nurse. Aside from courses offered in school, there are also online programs where you can enroll in. The best part about an online program is that you don't have to be there when the class is in regular session since you watch the lecture some other time similar to what Tivo does as it records a show at a certain time so you can view this on your own convenience. You will also be able to communicate with your instructor and classmates using email, instant messenger and in chat rooms. Once you enroll in an online program, the school will provide you with special software so you can simulate your classroom and work on quizzes and projects. The online program introduces students to the forensic aspects of health care and public service. Some of the other things which will be explored include acts of violence, human abuse, collecting and preserving evidence, documentation and follow up procedures as performed by a health care provider, mass casualty incidents, sexual assault and trauma. If you want to go deeper and specialize in a certain field, some of the modules you can take may be clinical forensic nursing, correctional nursing, death investigation, forensic photography and forensic psychiatry. One thing these models have in common is that it will explore victimology and how it relates to the changing trends of violence in society. Most of those that will be doing the lectures are nationally recognized experts in their own field. With the number of people helping out, you will be able to build network and gain access to community resources for additional learning opportunities. How much you know about the subject matter will be tested and graded. If you pass, the only thing you need to do now is pass the board exam so you can already find work. Whichever medium you use, you should be able to; 1. Identify and properly collect forensic evidence within the health care setting to ensure that it will withstand legal scrutiny. 2. Communicate with the various members of the multi-disciplinary forensic team including victim advocates, law enforcement, and the judicial process in general. 3. Determine treatment for triage and emergency intervention for patients who exhibit potential forensic implications. 4. Identify basic policies and procedures required for conducting sexual assault examinations for child and adult women and men. 5. Analyze the social and political implications of escalating violence as it relates to law enforcement, criminal justice and domestic living. A forensic nursing program will be easy to shift to if you are already a registered nurse or a licensed medical professional. But this should stop those who just graduated out of college because everyone has to start somewhere in order to become successful in their career. The only thing to do now is decide what kind of forensic nursing program you want to enroll in so do some research. Better yet, try to get in touch with students who are currently in the program so you will know what it is like which will help prepare you for the challenges ahead. Urgency Amid Violence: What Forensic Nursing History Is Telling Us Since forensic nursing is a fairly new field in nursing care, not too many people are aware yet of their roles. So many of these medical-legal professionals are already in the field helping victims of crimes by becoming instruments in putting the criminals behind bars. But how did this forensic practice start? Here's a quick view of forensic nursing history. Caregivers or health providers have been around for a long time now and many have already practiced forensic-type of services even before forensic nursing was recognized. In fact, during the 13th century, there were nurses who played the role of forensic practitioners as they examine the young women arranged to marry royalty. These women were required to be virgins before they can proceed with the marriage. The nurses of that time were the ones who confirmed the women's virginity to the monarchs. Nurses have also already worked with sexual assault and abuse cases during this period. Prior to forensic nursing, sexual assault nurses were the key people who handled rape or sexual abuse cases. Most law enforcement agencies in the country have a team of these sexual assault professionals who arrive at the crime scene to gather all physical evidences that can affect prosecution later on. These medical practitioners were tasked to handle these cases and not the crime scene investigators, medical examiners or forensic analysts. Homicide cases go to the police department's CSIs but sexual assault cases are special. The sexual assault response team model was initiated in California. Members of this team include the victim advocate, an officer of the police department, and a sexual assault examiner. This team works together in making a full and comprehensive investigation of the crime. The victim advocate provides counseling to the victim and preps her for the long process ahead. The police take charge of the investigation of facts. The examiner gathers the evidence, documents them properly, and assesses them. Medical professionals like nurses, counselors, and advocates who worked with rape victims in various hospitals and clinics first established a training program for sexual assault examiners in Memphis, Tennessee in 1976. Another program was launched in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1977. These were necessary to improve the services so that sensitive cases like rape can be handled properly. Many people during that time felt that the law enforcement couldn't handle such cases efficiently. They were too insensitive on their approaches and most of the time, they dismissed claims of rape due to a lot of misconceptions, bias, or pure lack of knowledge and understanding on the matter. It was in 1992 when the term forensic nursing was coined. About 70 sexual assault nurses and examiners gathered in Minneapolis that time to convene about their roles and how they can promote this service better as an organization. Shortly after, they formed the International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN), which now serves as the central unit to develop and promote forensic nursing nationwide and internationally. Come 1995, forensic nursing became an official specialization in the nursing practice when the American Nurses Association (ANA) recognized it. The government began to take notice and state legislators are now considering to pass a bill that requires hospitals to employ forensic nurses, who will care for sexual assault victims as well as victims of other crimes. There are a number of hospitals in the state of Connecticut that have certified sexual assault nurse examiners. This is considered as the entry point to forensic nursing. In a short period of time, forensic nursing history tells us that their usefulness in the society should be recognized especially now that the world is becoming more and more exposed to acts of delinquency. Forensic Nursing Journals for Practitioners: The Ultimate Guidebook for Practitioners Forensic nursing is a continuously developing and growing branch of nursing and health care. It could be considered a branch of the judicial system as well since it tackles evidence collection, which is critical to specific criminal cases. Associations that help forensic nurses like the American Nurses Association (ANA) and the International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) help promote the practice and assist their members through the publication of forensic nursing journals. There is one official journal of the IAFN, which it calls Journal of Forensic Nursing. This comes out on a quarterly basis and is distributed among the members of the association. The main goal of this journal is to help in the advancement of the science of forensic nursing by sharing information about so many cases related to forensics that have been handled by experienced forensic professionals. This journal includes manuscripts that serve as a rich source of knowledge for beginners or even those who have already started their careers. These manuscripts are submitted by the members and extensively reviewed by the board before they get published. This is to make sure that the information will truly benefit the members who will read them and refer to them when they need to. The requirement for a manuscript to see publication is for it to be original and has never been published yet. There are also certain guidelines to follow for those who wish to have their work included in the journal. All the details including the photographs, tables, and references should strictly conform to the standards set by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Forensic nursing, which has gained momentum in 1992, is the practice of applying nursing science to legal proceedings. Forensic nurses provide health care services directly to patients who are victims of violent crimes. They also assist people in treating trauma and in handling death, or abuse of any kind. Forensic nurses deal with the following cases: * Domestic violence * Sexual assault * Abuse or neglect of child or elderly * Psychological abuse * Human trafficking * Occult- or religious-related violence * Forensic mental or psychiatric health * Nursing in correctional establishments * Legal nurse consultations * Automobile or pedestrian accidents * Suicide attempt * Work-related injuries * Disasters * Administration of patient care * Service accidents/injuries * Check for environmental hazards * Detect drug or alcohol abuse * Check illegal abortion * Tissue and organ donations or charity * Homicide cases * Suicide * Cases * Suspicious deaths IAFN and their plans Since IAFN is an international organization, members to this association are scattered around the world. The organization doesn't only include forensic nurses as members, but also other professionals who provide support and complement the work of the forensic nurses. The organization has initiated the journals to reach its goal of disseminating information about the science and its growing number of practitioners. As the leader in the development of forensic nursing, the IAFN holds the following goals close to their principles: * Try to prevent violence as much as possible by helping solve crimes faster * Make improvements on the current standards in terms of evidence collection and forensic nursing practice per se * Promote sharing of information within the professional circle to help each other grown in the practice * Establish ethics in the practice of forensic nursing * Educate the up and coming forensic nurses These goals are all aligned in the forensic nursing journals that are being published to develop forensic nursing in the United States as well as in other countries around the world. Forensic Nursing Associations Serve as Catalysts for Forensic Nursing Nurses as we know, assist patients and doctors in the field of health care and care giving. As the world becomes more and more exposed to crimes, the role of the nurse evolved. A new branch of nursing has grown and this is a profession, which covers medical care and judicial or legal assistance at the same time. These new breed of professionals convene in what is called a forensic nursing association. Forensic nurses practice this newest form of forensic science where they gather evidences related to a crime that may have been committed on a patient. The forensic information they gather can be used during trials, which may also call them as professional witnesses. Forensic nursing is primarily geared towards helping victims of violence by producing the evidences that will help solve the crime. The traditional way to investigate on a patient is to have several people approach and ask questions. These are the social workers, doctors, police, FBI agent, etc. The victim, who may still be traumatized, will only feel worst since the recaps of the crime will have to be repeated over and over again. This can be addressed by having just one person do everything from beginning to end of the investigation. Beginning being, evidence gathering and end being, court trials and possible justice for the victim. The forensic nurse can be all these. Forensic nurses take charge of cases of abuse and violent crimes and oftentimes, these nurses find their work truly enjoyable and very much rewarding. Owe it to the popularity of related TV programs on cable, or owe it to the increasing crime rate, more and more clinic nurses who feel they could qualify, are enrolling in certification programs. The American Nurses Association recognizes this new field that is fast becoming popular. Nurses who just graduated as well as the really experienced Registered Nurses can consider this as their career path. Many experts see the demand for the forensic nurses to grow and grow. This should be a cause for alarm since the growth of these special nurses mean there is increasing crime rate in the country but that's practically why the field got conceptualized. Organizations like the International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) have been created to lead this budding group of forensics professionals. Associations like the IAFN provide services to help develop the field. They implement programs that promote the science, and disseminate necessary information about the new practice. Members of these organizations are registered nurses that are into forensic nursing activities like: * Scientific investigation of a evidences gathered * Providing treatment to patients who are traumatized * Handling interpersonal violence cases like sexual assault, abuses of all kinds, and domestic violence * Investigation of death * Managing forensic psychiatric cases * Correctional nursing in prisons or rehabilitation centers Most forensic nurses have major roles in the following venues: special hospital units, offices of the medical examiners or coroners, law enforcement agencies, social service units of the government, and other related institutions. This new field has indeed opened more doors for all nurses worldwide. A forensic nursing association plays a big role in the development of this very significant aspect of forensics, judicial, and medical systems in the society. These groups could be the best media to assist in the fight against violence and crimes.
InfoBank Intro | Main Page | Usenet Forums | Search The RockSite/The Web