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Police & Emergency Services

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Emergency Medical Services And How It Began

Emergency medical services give care to those who they are transporting to the
hospital. The care given is for many different kinds of injury and illness or
any time a person believes they need emergency care. These emergency services
are better known to the public as ambulance squads, rescue squads, ambulance
services, etc. the point of the emergency medical services no matter what form
they come to you in is the care of the problem quickly or to transport you to
the next stop to get the care you need. This may be a hospital, emergency room,
or other places where a doctor can be found. Depending on the type of unit your
area uses, they may also help to search and rescue patients from vehicles,
water emergencies, and extrication dangers.

Emergency services first started with the Bible in the New Testament accounts
of the Good Samaritan. Next, the Middle Ages brought to us the story of the
Knights of Saint John which seemed to be the starting point for the ambulance
squad. In 1487, Spanish Queen Isabella heralded the first ambulance for
emergencies pertaining to the troops. Because of the care they received and the
way it was given, more countries started taking an interest. By the late 1700's
to the late 1800's changes started happening to the primitive ambulance
service. Dominique Larrey came up with a horse drawn wagon for taking the
wounded farther distances so they could get proper medical care faster and not
be left on the battlefield to die. Napoleon's Army utilized these wagon
ambulances in 1793.

As the need for this ambulance changed, so did the ambulance requirements to
meet with any situation or environment. Later on, more advanced styles of the
ambulance were starting to show up around the world. London utilized a cholera
ambulance in 1832 setting a standard for the time the patient arrived for
medical care and the ability to reach patients who were farther away. In 1865,
the very first ambulance service was created to bring the patient to the
hospital. Cincinnati General in Cincinnati Ohio was the first to pioneer this
type of ambulance service. Following shortly after was the Bellevue hospital in
New York. This ambulance service saw the need to add other items to their
ambulance including morphine, brandy, splints, and a stomach pump. As you can
see, this was the start of the emergency services we offer today but with a
multitude of many more items for life saving and medical treatment.

As time progressed, so did the advancements in the ambulance. With the
invention of motor vehicles, the need for a horse drawn vehicle became
obsolete. The ambulance services really became prevalent during the wars that
followed and provided the soldiers with the fastest care that have ever come to
a wartime battlefield. In today's time, ambulances and emergency services have
come to a whole new level of care being able to provide complete life support
to any patient and providing a quality of care that was not even dreamed of in
the past. Emergency Services have evolved into not only an ambulance service
today but will also offer other modes of transportation including helicopters.
Thank goodness for the dreams that led to the many inventions we have today.
imagine where we would all be if we could no longer have the security of
picking up the phone and knowing the emergency services will arrive to care for
us within a matter of minutes.

The Truth About Emergency Services

When you decide to become an Emergency Services worker, you have chosen to be a
selfless individual in others lives. It makes no difference why you chose this,
at some point in your service, there will be some person you will be a forever
influence to. I was an Emergency Medical Technician for over four years. In
that time, I was truly blessed to find that at the times when it seemed to be
the most routine call, the patient affected me in some great way that I never
expected them too. In all the training you will go through should you choose to
make this great profession a part of your life, you will never truly be prepared
for the emotions and memories you will carry with you for your lifetime.

Something seems to click inside when that pager goes off and you are on the way
to the call. The training sets in and you mentally prepare yourself for each
particular call. You may know what the nature of the call is but, nothing is
ever as you think it will be. I remember times when the call was simply a
routine call and took no special skills to help the patient. I was also their
when a few of those patients took their last breath. Realize that as a worker
in the Emergency Services, you may be the last face this person will ever see.
This is something you will never forget. I hope that I was at least a comfort
to them in their last minutes. If you choose to do this, I hope you can provide
that comfort also.

Some of the time, you get to be the first person an infant will see when they
come into the world. I remember one such occasion. I was helping to deliver a
child. There was not anything special about the call but, even now, I still
wonder how the child is doing and what age they are. I try to imagine what
things they have experienced in their lives as a result of coming into the
world with me being a part of it. These are things that are never taught in any
of the classes or training you will undergo. They will try to prepare you for
the tasks ahead but until you have been through them, you will never truly know
the sadness and joy that others can cause. You have now become part of this
person's life in one way or the other.

Becoming an Emergency Services worker is a commitment that you must make before
you take the steps to get your certification. Realize that when you choose this
profession whether paid or volunteer, you will be working hours that most
people sleep through and you may never be thanked for the work you perform.
Also prepare yourself for the times when that special patient will affect you
so deeply that you may want to find how the results turned out. Unfortunately,
most of the time, when the patient reaches the hospital, it is over and you may
never know what happened next. As I said before, selflessness is a necessary
trait for any Emergency Service Worker and that the work is thanks enough for
what you do.

EMT: What Are They and What Do They Do?

Most people know what EMTs are, but there are some that are not aware that an
EMT is an Emergency Medical Technician, and they have no real understanding of
what is required of them, or what EMTs do. They are, in a sense, the first
response teams that aid victims during a crisis. More often than not, they are
required to assist a patient directly at the scene of the crisis, as well as in
an ambulance or other moving vehicle, on the way to the hospital. These
emergency workers are most usually on-call during the course of their shifts,
which can differ from several 24 hour shifts followed by a couple of days off,
to a daily shift often lasting from 12 to 15 hours.

Due to the stress level and often difficult working conditions, it is
imperative that these workers maintain a professional, calm and decisive manner
at all times. Quick decision making is a must, and leaves no room for error. In
many cases, an EMT is required to treat the victim immediately, these calls for
the ability to accurately assess the severity of the problem at hand, and
determine which treatment is most suitable. Once the EMT has escorted the
victim(s) to a medical facility, they are required to report their
observations, their plan of treatment up to the moment of arrival, and they
sometimes give additional assistance if needed.

There are four levels that are registered with the NREMT (National Registry of
Emergency Medical Technicians) and these four levels are dependant upon the
persons knowledge, skills, and successfully completing the proper
certifications and courses for each respective level. The basic capabilities
that all EMTs are required to know and have the ability to perform are a few as
listed: treat wounds, CPR, administer oxygen, deliver babies, control bleeding,
apply bone splints and anti-shock suits, have the ability and knowledge to
properly subdue people displaying violent behavior, as well as be able to treat
allergic reactions. The rest of the skills are dependant on which level the
person is certified to practice. The four levels, as previously mentioned, that
are registered with the NREMT are the First Responder, EMT-Basic,
EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic. The first level EMTs is the level that
covers emergency workers, fire fighters, and police, as well as some
volunteers. This level includes the most basic of first aid skills, and does
require courses for certification, but these are mainly short courses that are
for basic first aid only.

EMT-1 or the EMT-Basic class of EMTs are capable of managing a victims
breathing, heart and handle trauma emergencies as well as on-the-spot diagnose
the victims condition and make decisions regarding the proper responses for
treatment either at the site of the crisis and/or en route to proper medical
facilities. The EMT-2 and EMT-3 (EMT-Intermediate) has the necessary skills to
perform the skills required by level EMT-1 and along with those skills, they
are required to have the ability to administer intravenous fluids as needed,
and shock stopped hearts using defibrillators. Their skills also include the
ability to apply their knowledge of advanced airway techniques to assist
victims with breathing problems or airway blockages. The highest level, EMT-4,
the EMT-Paramedic are those skilled and certified to perform the most extensive
care prior to the victim arriving at or being admitted to the medical facility.
This level of EMT has the ability, skill, and knowledge to perform all of the
previously listed skills as well as minor tracheal surgery, which is inserting
a tube into the windpipe of a victim to assist them in breathing if it is
necessary. EMT-4's are certified to administer drugs, and use a myriad of
additional complex medical equipment as well as read electrocardiograms
(EKG's). All levels of these EMTs are qualified to work as/with police
officers, fire fighters, in hospitals or other health care facilities.

Emergency Medical Technician Defined 

An Emergency Medical Technician also known as an EMT is defined as a responder 
trained in emergency situations and who can give you the emergency care you need 
when you are severely ill or have been injured. In the past, the Emergency 
Medical Technician was thought of as a simple ambulance attendant and nothing 
more. In today's world the Emergency Medical Technician has evolved into a more 
important and supportive position. They are now able to do more than they 
previously could and are being exposed to many things that were not known about 

The Emergency Medical Technician is able to deal effectively with not only
those emergencies occurring as a result of a medical condition but have now
been trained to work in more advanced situations. For instance, the Emergency
Medical Technician is trained to deal with child abuse emergencies, to help
deliver babies, to deal with mental issues in the patient, and to deal with
problems arising from the multitude of hazardous materials used today. The
higher levels of Emergency Medical Technicians are able to administer life
saving medications that otherwise would not be available in any other way. This
by no means covers the wide scope of practice they fall under. The Emergency
medical Technician is the first medical care provided to a patient when there
are no doctors and nurses available. They work together with them to give you
the best care while you are in route to the hospital. From the Basic EMT up to
the more advanced Emergency Medical Technicians, the whole idea is to give the
patient a chance of survival when there is a lower chance of that happening
without care.

Situations occur when there is a need for rescue operations and not just the
treatment of the patient. Emergency Medical Technicians are trained to be able
to get the patient out of a vehicle, to save them from water emergencies, and
to deal with situations that arise within the mountains and higher elevations.
This training is usually done with the help and joint effort of the fire
services and other specialty agencies when necessary. The EMT is the first one
on the scene most of the time and will need to be qualified to deal with any
emergency they may encounter. The most important thing is that medical care be
given within a certain amount of time to give the patient a better chance of
recovery. Many facets of the job are what make an Emergency Medical Technician
such an important part of the entire medical team.

Every EMT is trained with a certain amount of guidelines to follow in patient
care. This provides a structured emergency scene where all involved know what
is happening. The EMT needs to be able to assess the patient quickly and
administer the care they need. This means that the first things focused on are
the patient's ability to breathe properly, their blood circulation and bleeding
control, the need to resuscitate a patient, and whether or not a defibrillator
is necessary to revive the patient. An EMT providing this care within the first
hour of the patient needing help can give the hospital a good start when the
patient arrives and may very well be the key to patient survival in most cases.

Have You Ever Thought Of Choosing Emergency Services Professions?

Does your life give you the pleasure you thought it would? Have you reached the
level of satisfaction you had hoped to? If you find the answers to these
questions somewhat not what you thought, you might consider a career in the
Emergency Services profession. Believe that you are not the only person in the
world who has had the same answers when looking into their lives and where they
are in that life. Each of us is looking for something to make us feel vibrant,
useful, and needed. Emergency Medical Services can give you such things but
only with dedication and hard work. This profession can change your life as it
has so many other men and women over the years. With a little training and a
large amount of heart for the job, you can become one of the many levels of EMT
or Emergency Medical Technician. There is a person out there who may need your
help some day.

Once you choose to become a part of that special service of EMT, there are a
few things you need to know. The Service is split into different levels of
certification. The first one and the one most common is the regular EMT. You
can choose to become state certified or nationally certified. One is just about
the same as the other except with a little bit more study, you can be recognized
by the National Registry of EMT's and be able to work in more than one state.
Not all states are compatible with your certification so you will need to check
about requirements. If you are not planning on working anywhere but at home in
your own state, a state EMT certification is the only thing necessary. The next
level of EMT is known as the EMT-D. This certification grants you all that the
EMT certification does but with one exception: it allows you to use a
defibrillator on an unconscious cardiac arrest patient. These two levels are
usually reserved for the fire service or for a simple rescue squad.

The next level of EMT is known as the intermediate level. This is the level
where medication is introduced on a small scale and some procedures that were
not allowed are. The amount of training and class hours will go up but this is
necessary to prepare you for the stress and tension you are about to undergo.
The final level of training in the EMT Services happens to be the Paramedic
level. This brings with it a multitude of responsibilities including an
extensive list of drugs you are now able to administer with doctors approval.
The procedures you can now perform are no longer those that are simple in
nature but have increased to a level that can only be described as "life saving
emergency care". This may mean opening an airway by inserting an inhibition tube
or by giving an IV to a dehydrated patient. These two levels of EMT are found
mostly in the ambulance services and hospital emergency rooms.

This profession is one of the best but you need to also consider that not
everyone can handle it. There will be times when the blood or injuries may be
too much for you to handle. Think on this before you take the time and effort
to get your certification. If you choose to continue and are one of the special
heroes that make a great EMT, GO FOR IT!

Become An EMT and Save a Life.

What are you doing with your life? Have you achieved all that you planned on
achieving, and you can sit back and relax? Chances are you are probably in
almost the same circumstances as most of the rest of the world. You are
searching for something that makes life seem worthwhile, and necessary. Have
you ever tried saving someone's life? It takes a lot of work and dedication,
but the brave men and women that do it every day more often than not say they
would not change it for anything. These people are EMTs or Emergency Medical
Technicians. Becoming an EMT is not as simple as some people would have you
believe. If you are currently a police officer or fire fighter, you are halfway
on the road to being a registered EMT. The survival skills and the basic first
aid you were taught is along the same lines as the novice class of EMT. The
four levels of EMT training.

Novice or EMT beginner is certified, but does not require registration with the
NREMT (National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians).You are taught basic
first aid at this level, and mainly assist others that are treating victims at
the scene of a crisis. EMT-1 (Basic) requires a certain number of classroom
hours with additional hours served in a medical emergency room. Upon successful
completion of this level, you will receive certification as an EMT-1 and you
will be required to register with the national registry. Your job options are
more open at his point, but are limited due to the level of expertise acquired.
The skills learned with this level include basic first aid, patient assessment,
clearing obstructed airways, bone splints, etc.

EMT-2 or 3 (Intermediate) requires all applicants be registered with the
National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians as an EMT-1 following
successful completion of that level, and to fulfill an additional number of
hours classroom time, as well as additional hours hands on time served in an
emergency room at a proper medical facility. The skills learned at this level
include those previously mastered in the EMT-1 level, and move to a higher
level. They are more in depth, requiring greater skill and thought, a calm
manner and presence is imperative due to the stressful conditions you will be
working under. EMT-4 (Paramedic) is the highest level you can be certified for
as an EMT. This level most usually leads those that have successfully completed
it, to physician's assistants jobs, and some even go further up the medical
ladder. The skills acquired at this level are a compilation of those from the
other three levels, as well as learning to administer medications, intravenous
fluids, emergency surgery to clear blocked airways, treatment of shock, and
many other skills. This level EMT is able to assist a doctor, directly or
indirectly, and requires the person that has successfully completed the level,
to obtain certification, and be registered with the NREMT which must be updated
usually every two years. Refresher courses and continuing education are
available at every level, in all 50 states in the United States, and also the
District of Columbia.

Although it may seem more difficult that what you are thinking of, you cannot
compare the benefits with any other job. These jobs, as an EMT, are direct
interaction with humanity at its best and worst. You will experience joy and
sadness, laughter and tears, but it is the very fabric of life that most people
never experience. You have the chance to help people, to change lives everywhere
and yes, even to save someone's life. It is not the circumstances that matter as
much, it is the lives and people, and whether or not you can save them. Your
have to have the heart to serve the public and want to help those who
desperately need it with no rewards in return.

Search and Rescue Emergency Workers

Although it sounds like a simple title, these titles are perhaps among the most
difficult to maintain. Search and rescue workers are what they sound like. When
a disaster occurs, these people are called in for either their help or their
expertise, dependant on the level of their skills and knowledge. There are
basically three categories that cover most of the field, those three categories
being the beginner (novice), support personnel, and field personnel. Keep in
mind the fact that all states are different, and the local requirements will
vary with each state. Beginning with the novice, or the beginner search and
rescue emergency worker, the general qualifications of these workers do not
normally include specific duties mandated to solely them. They are mainly
placed where they will perform the best. These workers are required to be in
excellent health both mentally and physically to suit the task at hand, and
they must be knowledgeable of at least the basic search and rescue skills
necessary to perform the required task.

The general qualifications for the next category of personnel, the
support-qualified workers, are similar to the novice workers, as well as some
additional qualifications that also vary from state to state. Again, the
support-qualified personnel are required to be in excellent condition
concerning mental and physical health suitable to complete the job. Their
knowledge for the job must include an understanding of the skills that are
equivalent to the field search and rescue personnel, but do not have to have
the experience nor the physical abilities of field-qualified personnel. First
aid knowledge, covering cardiopulmonary resuscitation, protection from the
elements, controlling bleeding in all instances both severe and mild, how to
handle immobilizing bones, and most importantly, how to protect themselves from
blood borne pathogens. Perhaps the most difficult phase of this category is the
knowledge of operating a helicopter. These second level emergency workers are
expected to understand and know proper operating procedures for a helicopter.
This is accomplished by completing a basic course that has been given approval
by the emergency management division. If it becomes absolute that the operation
of a helicopter is necessary, the support worker must be able to demonstrate his
or her knowledge and ability to handle a helicopter, as well as complete both
the intermediate and advanced courses (also approved by the emergency
management division) before being allowed to complete the duty.

The final category, field search and rescue emergency workers, is a position
that necessitates top mental and physical performance by the worker, due to the
conditions that they may be under at times. Some of these conditions may require
survival techniques, which are required, and knowledge of outdoor living at its
most difficult. The first aid section covers the same requirements as the
second category, those being: knowledge of protecting oneself and others from
being contaminated by blood borne pathogens, the ability to control bleeding
either minimal or severe, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, protecting yourself
from any elements, and handling broken bones. Along with outdoor living, this
category requires a definite knowledge of wilderness living, involving map
reading, compass usage, and additional methods of navigating as needed. This
category also requires the knowledge of operating a helicopter as well as the
proper completion of the basic course followed by successful completion of the
intermediate and advanced courses if the duty calls for helicopter operation.
The emergency management division must approve of the helicopter courses
completed for satisfactory fulfillment of the requirements. Search and rescue
techniques are mandatory for this category, along with the ability to handle a
crime scene by recognizing it as such, and carrying on as necessary to complete
the investigation or containment of the site until additional experts arrive.

As stated before, these are merely general requirements at most, and should not
be followed as rules. Each state differs according to their governing laws and
needs. Research into your states requirements concerning these jobs and the
different categories will give you a clearer understanding of all that is
necessary to become a search and rescue emergency worker.

Who Rescues the Rescuers?

We all know who to call when there is a fire, an explosion, and yes, even
sometimes the odd cat in a tree. We call our local fire department, and they
respond to rescue us or those in danger at the scene of the crisis, however,
who rescues them from the dangers they face with each rescue or fire control
they perform? What do we really know about when it comes to the dangers the
firefighter's face each time they respond to a call? Not only are they facing
physical dangers that are potentially life threatening, but also they are
facing long term threats to their health and the length of their lives. There
have been far too many deaths of firefighters that, sadly, could have been
avoided if there had been some minor changes made, or other life saving
equipment made available. Unfortunately, there are difficulties in obtaining
some of the equipment that our firefighters so desperately need. Some of the
reasons for this are a lack of money, lack of support, and quite honestly a
lack of concern.

The old adage, "out of sight, out of mind" seems to ring true when it comes to
the fire departments across the United States. Most political authorities take
no notice of the men and women that run the fire departments, unless something
happens to bring them into the limelight, or unless they are needed at some
point in time during said politician's tenure. They are the emergency workers
that sacrifice silently in the background, to change and save lives everywhere,
but they are also perhaps the most forgotten when it comes to financing or

Some of the financial cutbacks that occur from time to time in every city or
town are more often than not felt in schools and emergency related departments.
One has to question the wisdom in these decisions, considering that the schools
are our future by teaching our children -- ruin them, we ruin our children,
hence our future. The fire departments are the ones that save our property and
lives -- in true politician style; this is biting the hand that feeds you. The
financial cutbacks make it difficult for the fire departments to obtain proper
equipment for their firefighters' protection, which risks their lives even more
each time they respond to a call. Will it take them returning your 911 call for
help, by calling your phone and saying, " I'm sorry, we are unable to respond
to your house fire, due to a shortage in proper fire retardant uniforms, but if
you would consider asking your town mayor to grant money to our local fire
department, we would be more than happy to respond to your call." While being
completely ridiculous to imagine, it may not be as far from the truth as you
would first think.

Why should they be expected to save our property and our lives, and suffer
unnecessary risks to themselves? The key word here is "unnecessary". If we
rallied for community support and moved for approaching our local government to
demand grants for the fire department, we would then be able to say, we are
rescuing our rescuers. These men and women respond to crisis calls daily
without a thought of their own safety, and most of them have families that wait
nervously for their return. Call your local fire department and see how you can
make a difference. There are far too many things to be done by only a few
people, so get involved. Get involved in your community, in the care and
support of your local fire department. What you put into your community is what
you will get back. Write letters to your local politicians to request more
support for the fire departments, and volunteer your help wherever they need
it. Put your heart into the support, and make it public -- we need to rescue
those that rescue us.

Personal Protection For Emergency Technicians

The use of personal protective gear is not only mandatory in some departments
but is necessary of the safety of the individual EMT (Emergency Medical
Technician). The personal protective equipment gives the EMT a barrier between
them and the infections and injuries that can occur. Certain types of personal
protective gear can give you a layer of protection against some very nasty
chemicals. Each Emergency Medical Technician has been thoroughly trained in the
use of universal precautions and how to use their personal protection gear
properly. Listed below are a few of those items that are so essential.

The first and easiest precaution to take is simple hand washing. Special hand
cleaners are designed to kill germs that regular soap and water can not. After
each call, it is necessary to wash your hands thoroughly to prevent the spread
of germs from the patient to the technician or others. When stocking supplies
in a medical bag whether for the service or for their own personal use, adding
a bottle of antibacterial hand cleanser that uses no water and one that does if
water is available is not a bad idea. Besides the hand washing routine the
Emergency Medical Technician should institute, gloves are a sure barrier
against those nasty germs. There are three major types of gloves to choose from
and named so for the material they are made of. They are nitrile, vinyl, and
latex. Certain individuals find they have an allergic reaction to latex
products so the other options might prove to be a better choice for them.

For those germs and infections that travel through the air, there are special
face masks and CPR masks available. When coming in contact with large amounts
of blood or body fluid, it is best to place a face mask between you and the
life threatening pathogens (germs) in it. The masks are there to stop any spray
from getting on the skin and to stop the fluids from entering the mouth, nose,
and eyes which will be a sure and direct route for the infection to take up
residence in the body. CPR masks provide a barrier between the unconscious
victims mouth and nose and the Emergency Medical Technician working on them.
Electronic and manual equipment exists so that no human to human contact occurs
but in some cases the EMT arrives before the equipment does. In those cases
preparation is key and a CPR mask is needed. Safety glasses also provide some
protection from the germs and infections and can ensure that objects stay
outside the eye where they belong.

Much other protective gear exists to help protect the individual from the
hazards out there but these are some of the most important items used today.
Complete body coverage is also used to prevent injuries from occurring in more
dangerous situations. For all calls the Emergency Medical Technician can
encounter, the gloves, hand washing habits, masks, and eye protection are most
essential. Those Emergency Medical Technicians who follow these simple
precautions are around to make a difference in many lives over the course of
their service to the community. It is in being safe that help is given best and
by utilizing these simple items, it can be given safely to each and every

Emergency Medical Technicians: Do You Qualify?

If you are looking for a fast paced medical job that requires hands on practice
of your medical and first aid skills, you may want to consider becoming an EMT
which is an Emergency Medical Technician. These people have many different
fields they are able to assist in, and there are different levels of skills and
certification available. The qualifications vary for each level of EMT, and from
state to state.

The first qualification is that all applicants must be at least 18 years old,
and possess a valid driver's license for the state they are applying in. It is
not mandatory, but it would benefit those in high school to attend driver
education, science courses and health courses. These will aid them in the
future in regards to completing courses for EMT classifications. Being stable
emotionally and mentally is of course required, as well as excellent dexterity
with good physical abilities. You need to have the ability to handle heavy
loads, both lifting and carrying, as well as excellent eyesight. Corrective
lenses are accepted, but they may not impede your performance.

The three levels of EMTs are EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and EMT-Paramedic.
These levels require different skills with each that progress in detail and
difficulty with each level completed. The entry level positions are mainly
geared toward emergency workers that are also referred to as First Responders,
these are the police, fire fighters, and others that are more apt to respond
first to the crisis. This level includes basic medical first aid, and often
leads to the person completing higher courses. These levels of EMT training are
available in all 50 states in the United States, as well as the District of
Columbia. EMT-Basic requires approximately 110 to 120 actual classroom hours
and 10 hours of internship work in an emergency room in a proper medical
facility. A list of the instruction provided can be obtained from your local
state website, but most of them are general as far as listing airway
obstruction, cardiac arrest, bleeding, and many more skills. The applicants
that successfully pass both the written test and the skills examination that is
given by the NREMT (National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians) will
receive their certification as a Registered EMT-Basic.

Although it varies from state to state, the next level of EMT is the
EMT-Intermediate. For successful completion, this level requires additional
education of 35 -- 55 hours past the EMT-Basic time frame. Covered in this
classroom time are details concerning rapid victim assessment. Administering
intravenous fluids, and using more complex airway devices. To qualify for this
level of EMT training, the applicant must first be registered as an EMT-Basic
through certification by successfully completing all the requirements for the
basic level. Those applicants that successfully complete and receive their
certification for both the EMT-Basic and the EMT-Intermediate are eligible for
enrollment and completion of the final level of EMT-Paramedic. The requirements
of this level are an additional 750 -- 2,000 hours of training and skills
education. This level is the most strenuous, as well as being taxing, mentally
and physically. Once the applicant has successfully completed this final level
and has received his or her certification, they are registered with the
National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT). Most states require
EMTs to keep their registration current, which requires them to re-register,
most usually, every two years. This requires them to currently be working as an
EMT at some level, as well as meeting their state's set requirements in regards
to continuing education. Courses and continuing education are offered in all 50
states at all of the levels of EMTs. If this is a job you are interested in,
research your state's requirements for your chosen level. Successfully
completing one or especially all of these levels of EMT training will benefit
you when it comes to a job search for jobs paying higher wages.

Do You Still Dream of Saving Lives?

Most people had big dreams when they were young. Can you remember back to when
you were just a child, or perhaps your own children have done or said the same
thing, "I want to be a fire man or a police man when I grow up." An EMT is not
far from that very aspiration. The desire to save someone's life is something,
I believe, to be a normal part of growing up, but sometimes along the journey
of growing up we lose sight of those childhood dreams and passions, and sadly
they are left behind with our many dreams that most people labeled as useless
or impossible. Look inside yourself, find that dream and dust it off. Bring it
back into the open and think about how you can achieve it. Saving someone's
life can be as simple as a phone call or a hello at the right time, or it can
be as complex as physically saving their life by administering intravenous
fluids or inserting an airway device for someone unable to breathe on their
own. These skills are ones you will learn when you begin the EMT courses to
receive certification as an emergency medical technician.

If you are planning on becoming a police officer, or a fire fighter, you will
be required to obtain certification of the beginner or novice level of EMT
training. This level includes knowledge of basic first aid skills, as well as
simple assessment of a victim and the proper course of action to take for them.
This level of EMT is most often referred to as the first responder EMT due to
the fact that those that most usually receive certification at this level are
either police officers or fire fighters, and they are more often than not the
first to respond to a scene.

The first official level for EMT certification is EMT-1 or EMT-Basic. The
skills acquired at this level are those of the first responders' level, as well
as additional skills for treating broken bones, emergency baby delivery, how to
handle blood borne pathogens, etc. By successfully completing this course, you
will receive your certification and be registered with the NREMT (National
Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians) those that choose to continue their
education in EMT, will move on to the next level. The next level, EMT-2 & 3 or
EMT-Intermediate, requires more classroom hours in addition to those fulfilled
in the basic level. The skills are increased in their detail as well as
intensity. The applicant, after having successfully completed the course, will
receive certification as an EMT-Intermediate, and will be registered with the
NREMT as well. To begin this level, you must be registered with the NREMT
already as an EMT-basic. Along with the skills increasing, so do the
responsibilities, and you are taught an entirely different way of responding to
crisis' you encounter. By continuing to the next level, you will increase your
opportunity of finding a better paying job, due to the experience you will get
as well as the knowledge and skills you will learn.

The final level, EMT-4 or EMT-Paramedic, is the highest level you can achieve
as an emergency medical technician. Achieving this level requires approximately
2,000 classroom hours, 100 + hours served in an emergency room at a hospital, as
well as registration with the NREMT. Those that make it to this level, most
usually continue on as physicians assistant, or even higher. Successfully
completing this level heightens your chances of finding better job
opportunities, and puts you more directly in contact with crisis situations and
people needing your help. Saving lives may not be your ultimate goal when you
begin the EMT courses, but eventually you may just end up saving someone's
life, and simply because you made the choice to educate yourself, they will
have a second chance at life. Join the people that are EMTs, enjoy your life --
save someone else's.

Heroes Need Help Too

There is no doubt that when trouble arises, no matter what the situation is,
there is always going to be some agencies at the ready to help you. This means
that the fire department, Emergency Services, and the law enforcement agencies
will come when you call. Now consider the agencies itself. When they need help,
who is it that comes to their rescue? There is no denying that the ones who are
selfless in coming to your aid may some day find a situation that is too
dangerous or turn into life threatening situations causing real harm. The death
rate of these individuals in the police and fire services alone is enough to
make you stop and take another look at this question. There is also the risk
tot eh health and well being of the individual that could prove to be a problem
later on down the road.

You can try to ignore the facts in front of you but that does not mean that it
will just disappear or go away. Some of the affluent government agencies are in
the belief that it will. This is often true until something on a large scale
happens and then one of two things occurs. Either they sweep it under the rug
and act as though it was never there or they take the situation and use it to
their advantage to further themselves and their careers. At what point are
these men and women who give of themselves going to be the main focus and when
is it going to be an ongoing thing and not just when catastrophes happen. These
workers are giving everything they have for the citizens of this great United
States and now it is time to do what we can to be the ones to save them.

As one of those citizens who feel they need to make a difference, the easiest
way to show you are in support is by sending a note or card to your local fire,
EMT. Or police stations and just let them know you appreciate what they do every
day. The next thing you can do is to give monetarily to help provide the
necessary gear they need to make them safer. Think of this not as wasting money
but as an investment into your future safety. With the right equipment and
supplies, these heroes may save your life one day. Finally, make sure you let
your government officials know just how important this is to you. Write a
letter to the Mayor asking them to take a special interest into the services
and see if they can help in ways they may not be doing now. Some times these
heroes are just not thought of and left in the shadows.

Never do we consider that when we need help, we are on our own. Each day there
are thousands of police, fire, and EMT's who go out to provide you with the
help you need. They ask nothing in return and take nothing for granted. It is
our job, as citizens of this fine country to make sure that all of those heroes
are taken care of and have someone to be there when they find themselves in an
emergency. Why not give back to them what they give to us each day; Peace of

Police Officers And The Hats They Wear

Most people, when talking about law enforcement and police officers, believe
they know everything about them. Although they may admit they are not certain
of the actual job description that is basically where their knowledge ends. Not
many people understand the myriad of sub-titles involved in most police
departments nationwide. Most of the positions carry the same weight of
responsibility adhered to the phrase "To Protect and Serve", but they are all
different in many ways. As an Investigative Detective, you will be required to
maintain your composure while investigating high profile and difficult crimes
usually during unusual hours. The conditions are, at times, hazardous as well
as high stress and require a clear state of mind for decision making either on
the spot, or elsewhere. This position has been colored as glamorous by movies
and television shows, however, real life often differs dramatically and none of
the work is glamorous.

The next two 'hats' are slightly less dramatic, but necessary all the same.
They are the Bicycle Patrol Officer and the Community Resource Officer. The
former of the two requires, of course, biking skills as well as the ability to
react quickly. Performing this job, you are able to interact with the general
populace in a more personal manner while enforcing the basic laws of the town
or city. The latter job consists of interacting with society as a spokesman for
the police department, as well as portraying them as having a desire to reach
out to the community and neighborhood organizations, as well as schools and
groups. This officer makes appearances with the intention of educating people
on a myriad of topics while at the same time, bridging good relations with
society as a whole. Requirements of this position vary from force to force.

As a Narcotics Officer, you are required to be knowledgeable concerning
narcotics usage, effects, street worth, etc. Involvement in criminal
investigations, witness/suspect interviews, and court appearances (both state
and federal) are mandatory. The hours vary, but are most usually irregular, and
you are on call twenty-four hours a day. Close to, but different from is the
Gang Crimes/Investigation Officer. You will work closely with the criminal
investigation division in relation to gang related crimes. Gang activity will
be noted and tracked, as well as handled as necessary. FTO (Field Training
Officer) position assists in educating new recruits or re-educating current
officers concerning issues that are deemed important by a higher up officer.
They are responsible for teaching the courses that maintain the highest
performance level possible for their respective departments. The Traffic and
Motor Officer job description includes but is not limited to, being a member of
the Traffic Safety Unit, enforcing proper traffic control, as well as
investigating accidents. This officer patrols bike paths and assists where
needed in helping to educate the general public concerning issues of traffic
safety. They have the authority to enforce tickets and warnings to individuals
breaking the laws.

Another important position is that of the K-9 Handler. This officer has the
responsibility of maintaining his or her K-9 and their health, including
training of the dog. They are expected to interact with the general public to
heighten awareness of the use of K-9's in police work, and to assist any law
enforcement agencies that require the expertise of the K-9's superior senses.
These officers are in near constant contact with their assigned K-9 and are
expected to interact on a personal as well as a professional level with them.
These are only a small number of 'hats' that are worn by the respective police
officers. Many of them wear several at the same time, and manage to perform
their jobs in a professional manner that bespeaks highly of their abilities,
along with their dedication to men, women, and children everywhere. Although
they fill multiple jobs at the same time, the one they count most important is
their motto -- "To Protect and Serve".

Police Officer Requirements

Have you felt the call to duty, to aid in protecting your home and the citizens
around you, while maintaining peaceful relations everywhere? If you have,
perhaps you should consider joining your local police force. Before joining,
there is information you need to read and become familiar with, involving the
requirements, rules, and regulations. Although every state varies in their
requirements, as do each city and county as well, there are many requirements
that are similar from force to force.

The first requirement listed concerns the age limit. The average legal age to
apply for a spot on the police force is 21 years old at the time of filling out
the application. This enables the person applying to list their status as a
legal adult. Following the age requirement is the education level that is
acceptable for all applicants. The average education level required is at least
a high school diploma. Some police departments require two years of college as
well. If the applicant has had higher schooling, that is considered a benefit
and these applicants are more prone to procure the better job positions. You
are required to be a US citizen to join any police force here in the United
States and have either a birth certificate or legal proof of your citizenship,
and must possess a current license to operate a motor vehicle. This license
should be accident free, as well as insured. Background checks are of course,
mandatory. These are in depth checks, and have a tendency to go back as far as
each state or city chooses to search. As an applicant, you should have no
criminal record, and your reputation is researched as well. You must be a law
abiding citizen currently and in the past. Your interaction with people and
under circumstances is checked out as well. Included in this background check,
is a financial check. The applicant must demonstrate both in the past and
present, the ability to make appropriate decisions.

The applicant's health is also a main consideration in whether or not they meet
the minimum requirements for joining the police department. The heal section
covers the applicants over all health, which must be excellent, their vision,
height/weight, and hearing. A vision test is administered, and must be passed
for the applicant to be considered for employment. Along with health and
vision, is the height and weight of the applicant. There are not many states
that have a specific height/weight; however they do require your weight to fit
your height and build. Your hearing must be excellent, to enable you to hear
whispered conversations, to localize sounds, and to hear in noisy backgrounds.
Once you have passed this first part of the requirements, you must undergo
written tests and education, as well as pass physical tests, that cover your
abilities, endurance, and your presence of mind under stress. These are mainly
written tests, but there are tests that follow, that take you through a
rigorous action course. If you as the applicant, have made it this far, it
would be a travesty indeed to give up just yet. Following being hired, you are
required to undergo extensive physical, mental, and psychological training in a
Police Academy. Because the job is stressful and demanding physically, passing
the Police Academy with an above average rating is a definite plus for you and
the position you hold.

There are certain benefits and perks packages offered to the new recruits and
their families, as well as current officers. These are listed in most of the
information packets you will receive once you have completed all the
requirements and become a police officer. As an officer of the law, you will
take on the responsibility of the safety of the people in the town or city you
are employed by, and will be required to swear to uphold the law. This job is
not one to be taken lightly; the lives of the citizens are quite literally in
your hands.

General Job Description for a Police Officer

For those of you who are considering a career in law enforcement, it will
benefit you to be clear on the job requirements and the official job
description if you are applying for a job as a police officer. The average
person has no idea what entails being a police officer and very few people
understand what is expected of them. This article is written with those of you
in mind that is considering a position on your local police force. Keep in
mind, this is merely a general description, some towns/cities/states vary
widely from others. To completely understand what is required for this job, you
will need to procure a job description information packet from your intended

The basic description for their jobs is something of an umbrella statement.
Police officers are required to patrol both residential areas as well as
business establishments. In doing, they are to provide, when requested,
protection of citizens and their property, the security of these people and
businesses, and last but not least, emergency assistance. If you are looking
for a job that has earned the title as 'jack of all trades', it was never more
fitting than for a police officer. Once you are past the "over all"
description, you find the detailed listings, which for some cities are more
like a book in length than a description, that cover the general duties that
are expected of police officers. These duties are considered routine, but are
not limited as the only duties that will be given at any one time. Because the
world is ever changing around us, and communities are growing, these duties are
constantly growing and morphing to fit the needs of the community and the people
in them. With this in mind, we begin our small dissertation of the numerous
duties assigned to the average officer.

First and foremost, they are expected to maintain peace and lawfulness wherever
they are. They are meticulously trained to be constantly aware of their
surroundings, and to be knowledgeable of all the current laws. The are required
to observe and apprehend any people that attempt to violate the law, either in
traffic, or general law. At all times they must be observant of any criminal
activity around them, and be able to handle it as is legally expected. Through
the duration of their respective shifts, they are to practice individual
decision making skills in relevance to each incident they encounter during this
time, and following a full shift they are required to draw up a full report on
their activities during their shift and of all situations as they occurred.
Along with these incidents in their Activity Report, they are required to fill
out their respective state's Incident Form pertaining to each incident, whether
traffic stop, or criminal activity.

When processing evidence, each officer is required to complete all forms
mandated by the respective department, as well as logs or summaries that are
included in the process. They are responsible for keeping the information up to
date in any ongoing investigations, as well as logging new evidence as it may
arise. Once all of the above paperwork has been completed, the officer is
required to make necessary decisions regarding the placement or contact of
individuals to/about the city's Social Services Department, or any other
organizations, both public and private, that may assist in the current
situation. In concordance with local law, each officer is responsible for
appearing in court to justify his or her decision in cases brought before a
judge. Along with the previous requirements, all police officers are also
required to perform, to the best of their ability, any other duties that might
be assigned to them by their superiors. These may include, but are not limited
to, policing duties, community duties, and other duties as well. These are
simply the general listings, as with any other information, they will vary from
department to department.

Teaching Your Children About Police Officers as Community Helpers

Without realizing it, you may have given or are giving your children biases and
opinions concerning the men and women on the police force in your town or city.
Are you able to look back and know, with a clear conscience, that you have done
your utter best to teach them respect and appreciation, or have you colored
police officers as annoying individuals to be feared. Most people either do not
realize or do not care how they react toward police officers, and most of
society as a whole, fails to recognize their importance as individuals as well
as being officers.

The teaching begins at an early age with something as simple as pointing out
police cars to your child or statements like, "Sit up and be still, there's a
cop behind us! Do you want them to put us in jail?"At this point, your child is
beginning to associate fear and dislike with police, even if only on a minimum
level, and will grow if fed. It is imperative to teach them to respect police
officers, but not to teach your child to be afraid of them. Many towns and 
cities attempt to allow their officers to interact with every day society under 
normal circumstances, such as, visiting schools to help educate children about a 
myriad of different topics. Many police officers visit the schools to teach the 
children about stranger safety, car safety, etc. This time allows the children to 
see them as knowledgeable figures of authority that while deserving our respect, 
are also human, and very approachable. Children need to know they can go to 
police officers for help or assistance when they need it, but if we allow the 
negative influences around them to help shape their opinions of the police, we 
are only serving to stunt their growth as mature citizens, and this can lead to 
problems in the future.

Educate your children about the services and duties the police officers are
responsible for carrying out. They need to know what to expect and what not to
expect. In today's world, we are being forced to alienate our children from
much of societies' influences, due to the negative qualities and effects they
have on people everywhere, some of these negative effects are, in fact carried
out by rogue or bad police officers. Although they are few and far between,
those few have given most of the good officers a bad name. By teaching your
children in the right way concerning expectations from the police and what the
children are required to do, by law, you are helping to protect them from
people that may want to harm them.

Check in with your local police department and find out what they offer toward
helping educate your children about them as being productive community helpers.
You could possibly arrange a tour around the police department, to show your
child the jobs that are carried out on a day to day basis. Although you may
want to show them the county jail, I wouldn't advise it for younger children.
Remember, the idea is to educate them, not terrify them. Many police
departments are willing to work with the community to educate the citizens,
both young and old, about the important role they play in society.

Understanding their job a little better may just be the way to corral community
support for your local police officers. Once again, it all begins with you and
how you relate to the police officers around you. By being a law abiding
citizen, you are not only teaching your child how to behave as responsible
adults when they are older, but also you are showing them by example, how to
treat people around them, regardless of whether or not they wear a badge. The
police officers in any town or city need our support, and teaching your child
at a young age to realize this, is one way of promising a better future for
them as well as yourself.

Police Protection: It Could Be The Death of You

Almost daily, we open our newspapers or turn on our television sets, only to
hear or read of some new travesty dealing with police officers and a victim
that is either dead or in hospital as a result of an 'alleged' crime. How long
will we as law abiding citizens allow this to continue? How can we turn our
faces away and ignore an ever growing problem across America today. I am
referring to those instances like one in 1998, October 18th, an African-
American man passed away just over five days after having been beaten, brutally, 
by St. Paul's police officers that had stopped him for a traffic violation.
Perhaps the most shocking piece of information about this incident is the fact 
that Mr. Graham's hands had been handcuffed behind his back during the beating, 
and the officers involved claimed he had been attempting to flee the scene in 
his vehicle.

A large majority of the complaints are based on racism, and ethnicity, however,
there are in fact incidents that involve Caucasian people as well. In
Minneapolis, a white woman was shot to death by police officers that had broken
open her locked door in her apartment. After not only breaking open the entry
door, but also forcefully entering her personal bedroom, the officers shot her
to death. This woman suffered from mental illness, and her crime as stated by
the responding officers -- she had her radio playing too loudly. There are far
too many stories like these. People, later proven innocent, that suffered
drastically at the hands of the very ones that swore to uphold the law and to
"Protect and Serve" the community and the people in that community. A young
boy, 23 years old, happened to be visiting a friend in Minneapolis in 1994.
Police arrived and shot the young man from a distance of approximately 25 feet.
This young man died at a hospital, a little over an hour later. According to the
officers on the scene, he allegedly had a knife in each of his hands -- this was
vehemently disputed by several witnesses.

Where does the law that governs society and the law that governs law
enforcement officials, end? Are they not one and the same? How can we allow
those that claim to be guardians of the law, to twist and tarnish the laws they
do not believe apply to them? Granted there are going to be difficult situations
and circumstances, but reacting by beating people or killing they should still
be punishable by law, even if you are a police officer. We might not like what
we read, but how much longer can we show a blind eye, or turn a deaf ear to the
tears and crying of innocent souls everywhere. Society as a whole, must band
together to see that justice is served for those that are unable to speak for
themselves, or are simply ignored. Many have suffered at the hands of an
over-zealous police officer, whether it was physical or verbal, none of it is
correct. If we continue to allow this behavior and not see that it is punished,
we are in a sense, condoning it.

There are many organizations throughout the United States that are operating
for the sole purpose of making right the wrongs that have been done to so many
people. One organization in particular is UCAPB (United Communities Against
Police Brutality). This website is mainly for the Minnesota area; however they
do provide links for those that wish to find the nearest group that offers
support for those that have wrongly suffered at the hands of the police. If you
or someone you know has suffered a legitimate mishandling, the web site for
reporting such instances is This site assigns an agent to your
case for review concerning the specifics of the situation. Demand justice,
demand your rights!

Police Brutality: Have We Punished the Wrong People?

Today, society as a whole has a tendency to define most actions taken or
carried out by police officers as forms of brutality. To fully understand the
implication of the word, one must look at the beginnings, of said word. The
word brutality originates from the Latin word Brutus, which translates to
brute. Brutality would be the act of all of the above. When breaking down the
word as such, it begins to take on a far more serious tone, possibly even
frightening, when applied to some of the simple circumstances that occur to
day. Is it just what we hear in the news and in the paper or is their a real
issue here that needs to be taken seriously? Do the police have a choice or are
there some certain times when a more forceful action needs to be taken against
some of these criminals.

Some critics view most of police actions as being cruel, bordering on brutal.
How can they use such terminology to judge the countless men and women that
risk their lives daily for the safety of everyone, regardless of race, sex, or
orientation? These men and women have undergone extensive training, physical
and mental, as well as psychological. Some of what they have had to endure, to
fulfill a position performing a thankless job with little pay and very few
benefits, may well have toughened them up, but they are still human. They make
mistakes in judgment calls the same as anyone else. Some calls are purely based
on survival and how do we as citizen's judge something like this when we have
never been faced with such raw evil.

Often, some of the verbal, and too often physical, abuse they must persevere
throughout the course of a normal day would border on the definition of brutal;
however, society forgets those instances. They find it easier instead to judge
them by certain standards, yet ignore what is done wrong against them. Perhaps
it is the lack of support for police officers and the jobs they do, that we, as
a society, are forcing them to sever any emotional ties they once had for their
jobs, and making it almost necessary for them to react as strongly to any
situation as they are able. With little or no support, they are virtually left
on their own to survive in a world that most people do not even realize exists.

Instead of applauding their achievements, we publicly criticize their actions
and decisions, only helping to further the dislike, distrust, and disrespect of
police officers everywhere. They and their families often feel ostracized from
normal society, and sometimes resort to forming their own 'societies or
families'. Perhaps it is time we take a step back and look at the terms us so
freely use against them, and in all certainty knows what is being implied at
any given time. Labeling them as brutal is implying they are no better than
animals -- would you call on your animals to handle car accidents, homicide
calls, or domestic situations? Of course they are not. Laugh at the idea, but
that is in fact what is being said.

We might just have the definition of 'police brutality' down to an exact
science, but are we pointing our fingers at the right perpetrators? Police
officers suffer daily, through all types of abuse, and they are expected to
maintain a professional attitude at all times, while wiping spit from their
faces, or enduring a string of obscenities from a simple traffic stop. What
then is this called? I say it falls under the label of 'police brutality' only
it is being done to them, not by them. If we want a change, it has to begin
with us. Show support of the police officers, follow the laws and take a stand
against those that do wrong. They guard us with their lives -- the least we can
do is support them during ours.

How Understaffed Is Your Local Police and Emergency Department?

I am certain you, along with many others have often wondered at one time or
another, exactly where the police officers and emergency workers are after you
have called them. Sometimes it takes, literally, hours for them to respond,
which results in tempers flaring, and an altogether unwelcome attitude when
they finally arrive at the scene of whatever situation is at hand. Believe it
or not, with the exception of an odd case or two, they really were not at the
donut shop, nor were they sitting parked a couple of miles away, listening to
your frantic calls and laughing. These brave men and women are, in short,

With crime rates as well as the number of emergencies (most of which being
crime related) rising steadily in some areas, and the number of badge carrying
police officers and certified emergency workers declining, this can only make a
bad situation worse. The decline in police officers is due to many different
reasons, to name a few: injuries on the job, deaths on the job, and at times,
misconduct on the job. However much we try to believe they are supposed to
maintain perfect lives they are after all, only human. Some of them are going
through or have gone through more drama in their personal lives alone than most
people see in a lifetime. That added to the daily drama they work around, can
have a negative impact on some people, leaving them jaded and angry at the
cards they've been dealt. Some of the understaffed statistics, nationwide are
shocking in their severity. The more rural areas also tend to have far fewer
police officers or emergency workers than are required by the governing bodies.
There are many reasons that affect this shortage of officers and emergency
personnel, and one main one is how each city regulates the pay and support of
their employees. Many cities have mayors that do not stand behind the police
departments or their officers, or do not support the decisions or needs of
emergency workers. Although they have some of the most difficult jobs to do,
they receive the least amount of support, both financially and morally. Cuts in
budgets most often reveal themselves in local police departments through a lack
of proper accessories pertinent to performing their jobs, as well as pay cuts.

Recruiting new police officers and emergency workers is proving to be a vast
dilemma in most cities and states due mostly to the lack of sufficient funds to
offer excellent incentives or benefits packages. Money, although mainly
important, is not the only determining factor in whether or not new recruits
will sign on with each respective department. The lack of support, both legally
and morally is at an all time low. If police officers and emergency workers are
made to feel un-appreciated, they are slowly forced to withdraw emotionally and
physically, resulting in a lack of human contact in their jobs. This not only
heightens the chances of potentially harmful circumstances, but also allows the
criminals to see a break in unity, possibly encouraging them to perform criminal
acts more brazenly.

It all begins in the city or state government. Rally for support for your local
police department and emergency workers. They need all the help they can get,
and the more people that show their support and appreciation, are liable to
effect a change in the laws that govern pay and benefits for police and
emergency workers. Follow the workings of the city council, and keep up with
the changes made. Do not let your city fall into the hands of criminals, that
although they are in suits and ties and they were elected to their position,
they are criminals all the same if they are cutting the budgets for police
departments. Being understaffed is a big problem, and it will not go away until
it is dealt with properly.

What is Community Policing?

Community policing is a well known term for those who serve in law enforcement.
Most community citizens do not even realize the depth of what policing the
neighborhood entails. Community policing in simple terms means that when the
police are doing their jobs to protect your neighborhood or community they are
not just going out without a plan in place. There are strategies and ideals
that are followed to make sure uniform procedures are adhered to. When
interacting with the community, it is essential to understand that the police
force is not alone in what they do. It is imperative that the community is also
an integral part of helping to keep crime down. When the members of the
community join in the fight by coming forward with information and not holding
back when a wrong has been committed, it brings about a joint effort to prevent
crimes from happening again. This is the essence of community policing.

Try to understand that the law enforcement is not a separate entity from your
community or neighborhood. Most of them live right in the same town you do. The
community police agencies are not only there to deal with crime but also to work
to better the community itself whether in the city or county you reside in. the
general idea that face to face interactions with the police and the community
is vital to a successful neighborhood policing effort. This means that more and
more agencies are bringing their officers out to serve on bicycles, horses, and
on foot. It is hard to meet others when you sit in a car all day. Getting to
know the community on a personal level as well as the police officers more
intimately can give you a trust that can not be felt if you are afraid or
uncertain about what to expect.

On the part of the officer who is expected to be part of the community policing
effort, it is essential for them to come into this type of policing with a
willingness to serve and a spirit that is open and also not swayed by those he
knows. The officer needs to be in a frame of mind to care for what is happening
and those it is happening to. When situations arise that the officer may or may
not agree with, they need to be able to listen without judgment and be fair to
all involved. The officer needs to be sincere about how he treats the community
members and not be false in dealing with them. This is the most important part
of the neighborhood policing strategy.

Community members need to try to understand that for a successful effort to be
made, they also need to be unbiased about their opinions of the police in
general. Even though they may have had certain situations arise in the past
that were not exactly positive in their dealings with law enforcement, it does
not mean they need to assume or judge the whole agency in the same way. When
the police and the community come together in a community policing strategy, it
not only serves to better the trust between the two but it gives a peace in
knowing that you truly are protected from the bad elements.

Police Search And Seizure

There is a term within law enforcement that is known as search and seizure. It 
is a legal procedure allowing law enforcement officials who have suspicions of 
criminal activity occurring to search an individual's property and to take 
anything related to the crime itself. There are rules in place for such search 
and seizures to make sure that not only are the law enforcement officers covered 
but also the citizens have their rights rotected. The Constitution of the United 
States is the particular document ensuring these rights to all involved. 
Unreasonable search and seizure is not allowed and also defined within the 
Constitution. This means you have a right to keep your privacy and not have it 
invaded by anyone who wishes to take it from you. To ensure that privacy is kept, 
a search warrant is issued before any search and seizure procedure is undertaken.

To be more specific, the Constitution of the United States has listed this
search and seizure under the Fourth Amendment. More common to the whole of
society is Fourth Amendment Rights Violations. This Amendment gives the average
citizen security in knowing that their homes, personal effects, important
documents, and even their own bodies can not be invaded with a just reason. For
a search warrant to be issued, probable cause must be shown to the judge or
court as to why the search and seizure is necessary. Not all search warrants
are issued because of insufficient evidence to show probable cause in a
situation. Since the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution is, at best, a vague
writing, more specific requirements have been instituted by courts dealing with
cases of searches and seizures. The ruling has brought about changes that affect
the specifics of the Amendment.

When a search warrant has been issued, even though there may be probable cause,
there are certain exceptions that can occur as to the validity of it. The
individual may have questions as to whether or not proper consent has been
given to carry out the search. If the individual allows the search to occur
without the warrant in place then they must agree voluntarily to it.
Unfortunately, there are no set rules as to what makes a search voluntary. In
this case, a court will need to decide whether or not the voluntary consent was
valid by looking at the entire situation. Law enforcement does not at any time
have to inform the individual they have the right to say no to the search. In
cases where another person has legal rights to the property along with the
suspect in question, they are allowed to give permission to the search without
the consent of the other party.

The idea behind the search and seizure is to protect the community when a wrong
has been suspected. It is also true that the privacy rights of the individual
suspect need to be respected and protected. Nobody wants to feel violated in
any way and this is why the Fourth Amendment is in place for such situations.
To keep yourself safe when faced with any type of law enforcement issue, it is
a wise idea to make yourself aware of your rights and to learn what you can
about it all. The best thing you can do to make sure this never happens to you
is to make sure you are a law abiding citizen and keep yourself out of trouble.

How The Police Protect Your 5th Amendment Rights 

The situation in which a Miranda warning is necessary is in times of arrest or 
when the suspect is in custodial situations. This means that the suspect does not 
have a free right to leave if they so choose too but they are not yet under 
arrest for anything. Miranda Rights are standard before any questioning is done 
of a suspect about the crime. If anything is said by the suspect to admit guilt 
in a crime and no Miranda Rights were given and the suspect waived those rights 
in a voluntary way, the confession or comment is usually not admissible or usable 
in court. Questions about your address, birth date, and name can be asked without 
a Miranda Warning being given.

Miranda Warnings were authorized to be a mandatory reading as they are now
because of the court case of Miranda versus Arizona. This case was ruled on by
the U.S. Supreme Court in 1966 to help protect the 5th Amendment rights of all
individuals including suspects and to ensure self incrimination was not coerced
out of that suspect. The specific words of the Miranda Warning were not set down
by the Supreme Court but were given as a general guideline to follow. Basically,
the Miranda must state that the rights of the suspect are; to remain silent,
what they choose to say without a lawyer present can be used in court to find
them guilty, to have a lawyer with them when questioned and to represent them,
and that lawyer can be provided with no cost to the suspect if they can not pay
for it. Miranda warnings are not designed to be read or spoken in any order as
long as the rights are given and understood. Miranda must be given in such a
way as to be understood and it is essential to ask if the suspect understands
the rights given to him. A silent suspect is not a waiver of the rights
however, if a clear answer is not given, it might present problems later in

The case involving Miranda versus Arizona was against a man named Ernesto
Miranda. He was being accused of rape and kidnapping. While he was being
questioned by the police, he confessed tot he charges. Unfortunately, there was
no lawyer present and his rights under Miranda were not given to him before the
confession was given. Because of the confession only and no other evidence to
support the guilt of Ernesto Miranda, he was found guilty of the charges. Three
years after the conviction, the Supreme Court decided that Ernesto Miranda was
being frightened by the one investigating him and therefore gave the confession
not of his own voluntary choice. Because of this, Ernesto Miranda was released
only to later be retried and this time witnesses and evidence was used to
convict him and caused him to have to serve eleven years in prison. One a weird
twist of fate, the man that was to kill Ernesto Miranda in prison was given the
Miranda rights and he chose to remain silent.

The television police shows have given all of us a view of the Miranda warning
in a way that we have grown to expect this reading to occur in every arrest
situation. This has become the normal course of things tot he point that most
people can recite their Miranda Warnings from memory. Miranda is necessary only
when the police are going to interrogate a suspect and keep them detained at the
local station or in the police car after detention. Suspects can be arrested and
not be given the Miranda. If interrogation is necessary after that arrest, this
is the time for Miranda to be used. It is important for citizens to know those
rights and when they are to be given that way, their Fifth Amendment Rights are

Cameras Installed In Police Cars 

There is some police show on television each day that reminds us of the fact that 
a camera is watching our every move. They're very common to all of us now but, 
really did not surface until the later part of the 1990's as a result of the need 
for more definitive ways to reduce racial tensions and to prevent lawsuits from 
being filed. The Community Oriented Policing Services of the Department of Justice 
in the United States was the first to jump in and offer help to the police agencies 
that needed funding for the camera installations. The created an incentive program 
for the In-car cameras which gave monetary aid to any state or highway patrol to 
ensure they could purchase the cameras they needed. In 2000, the first monetary 
funds were given. Three years later, forty seven states had been granted over
twenty-one million in funds for the camera program. Before the program started,
only eleven percent of there law enforcement agencies had a camera in their
vehicles. Because of the program, that number has risen to seventy-two percent
and is still going up.

A national survey was done in 2002 to see just how well the camera program was
working and if having a camera in the vehicle was making a difference in a
positive way. Only twenty states were used to complete the study of the
cameras. To ensure a well rounded course of study seven areas were assessed.
These were under the headings of performance and professionalism, the safety of
the officer, complaints filed because of police behavior, the opinion of the
public, and leadership in the agency, the training, and homeland security.

Whether or not you approve of the camera program is a matter of personal
preference and choice. It seems to have raised only a little opposition to it
as a result of worries over personal privacy. Is it fair to say that a camera
in such an open space being used to file the great outdoors would cause a
person to be invaded privacy wise? At what point do we have to say that this is
just not an issue and needed more for the safety of everyone who is involved.
Imagine the amount of money the cameras save each year by reducing the number
of false accusations and the court proceedings necessary to rule on such

Because of the camera in the car the general public seems to be more confident
in the police and able to trust them more because of the watchful eye on them.
Citizens know that if bad behavior occurs on the part of the officer, there
will at least be a record of the wrongdoing against them. It is also helping to
provide police and law enforcement agencies the protection and piece of mind
they need to combat those suspects who are suing due to wrongdoings at the time
of arrest. Officers have said that the cameras are great although they seem to
be dependant on them more for the facts than they used to be and really want to
be. It seems that the cameras are working to better both sides of the spectrum
and are helping to ensure fairness in police dealings.

K-9 Are The New Breed of Cops

We have all seen them in movies, some have even experienced their work up close
and personal, and some have wondered -- what are these dogs actually used for?
Are they in fact going to be the 'next generation' of police officers? While
their expertise is definitely welcome in the law enforcement world today, I
doubt they will replace humans, but there are many police officers that prefer
working with K-9's and rank them as the highest on loyalty and trustworthiness.

The training of K-9's is a meticulous and often strenuous process. There is
quite a lot of education that goes into their training, as well as training the
handler of the K-9. It all begins with the selection process of each and every
dog that is hand picked for training as a police tracking dog. Not all dogs
chosen will actually succeed, but the high majority of them do. It takes a
special dog, quick witted, healthy, and mentally efficient, to graduate from
any course as an official K-9 police tracking dog. Currently, the most popular
breed of dog chosen as K-9's are firstly, the German Shepherd, then following
close behind is the Belgian Malinois, and for passive police work, Labrador
Retrievers are commonly used.

German Shepherds are commonly chosen for police work, mainly for their amazing
level of intelligence as well as their size and stamina. They are known for
being enduring animals, and lasting through much more than the average breed.
Not only are they intelligent, they are also capable of being aggressive when
necessary. German Shepherds are trained to use their noses the same way, but
far better than, the way we use all of our senses. This is required for the
ability to track down perpetrators by following either a fresh or cold trail.
Some of these dogs have been known to follow a cold trail, and end in success.
The aggressive part is necessary as protection for themselves as well as
protecting their handler. Not only are the K-9's used as drug finders, but also
as explosive finders, as well as simply being a partner to their handler, and
protecting them much in the same way another human partner would. The breed of
Belgian Malinois looks much like a German Shepherd, but slightly more sleek and
smaller in size, but not by much. These foreign dogs are imported from Holland,
and are known for their keen sense of smell, as well as their high intelligence
rate. They are the second most popular breed preferred for police work, due to
their agility as well as their speed, and their endurance. They are used abroad
as sheep dogs, which enables them to be natural herders. This used with police
tracking training, makes an excellent combination. Labrador Retrievers are
sometimes used as K-9's, but mostly in non-aggressive situations. These dogs
are well known for their retrieval instincts, and their gentleness. They are
the best choice for interaction with children or community jobs. When using
labs as police tracking dogs, they have shown success in explosive retrieval,
and narcotics retrieval. They are more widely accepted by people in general due
to their being one of the most popular choices by families as a companion for
their children.

Although it may seem slightly dramatic, more and more law enforcement agencies
are adding to their police force by incorporating K-9's into their daily
duties. Using K-9's can be expensive for any department, considering the
purchase price of the dog, as well as upkeep added to frequent training courses
with a professional trainer, to keep the K-9 in top form. Both the handler and
the K-9 must be trained properly, and will more often than not, be partners for
life. Using dogs as a compliment to actual officers on the police force just
might be one of the more genius ideas known to man. K-9's are definitely rising
in popularity, and could very well be the next 'breed' of cops.

Teaching The Next Generation To Respect

You may not think so but, the way you ask towards your local law enforcement is
making a lasting impression on the views and opinions of the younger generation.
The local agencies are made up of men and women who live right where you live.
How can you even consider negative feelings about your neighbors who are only
there to serve you? What does this teach the younger ones about respecting
authority and how to respect your neighbors? Maybe more than ever, we need to
reevaluate just what it is we are teaching the children about the roll of law
enforcement. It seems that if something is not done soon, it might mean the
children of today could be the criminals of tomorrow. None of us want that to

If you have a child who is at a very young age, now is the time to make a good
impression. Take your child to see the police station in your town. Let them
meet those people who make up this special agency. Never give you child any
reason to be afraid of these people just because they are in a uniform. Make
sure they also understand that if they do the wrong thing, these people are
there to make it right. If you child is at the age where they attend school.
They will be able to interact with law enforcement with some of the programs
they offer. Law enforcement may visit your child's school to teach the children
about how to be safe when walking home, how to deal with strangers, and many
other useful things. If we do not teach our children about the positive ways
law enforcement helps, they will never feel comfortable enough asking for help
when they need it. This is most important.

Make sure your youngster knows what the law enforcement can help them with. Try
to help them to understand what can happen in certain situations. Try to explain
to your child that the individuals in law enforcement are no different than you
or I; they are just here to help us. Knowing that they are not superheroes may
take some of the expectations of perfection off these individuals and provide
them a more realistic view. They will have a less frightening experience. Teach
them that television shows are not true when it comes to the real thing. They
need to understand that bad things happen and when they do, there are no second
chances. Show them that law enforcement is the first step to providing a safe
place so those bad things do not occur.

You local law enforcement can give you a list of programs they offer for
children and ways to educate them better on this subject. Older children may
need a trip to the jail in your town to get a first hand look at what really
happens there and not the television version. You do not want them to be afraid
of the law but you also want them to understand that there are consequences tot
heir actions. For those who have no children or who just want more information
about law enforcement agencies and the people who serve, contact your local
agency. You may also take a look on the internet or in your local library for
more information.

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